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Title: High-burnup Experiments in Reactivity Initiated Accidents (HERA)

Abstract

HERA is a joint experimental program (JEEP) operating within the Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA’s) framework for irradiation experiments (FIDES). HERA is dedicated to the understanding of light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance at high burnup under reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA). During RIAs the fuel cladding can be breached by one of two mechanisms; pellet-cladding mechanical interaction or high temperature balloon and rupture. Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) failure occurs in the early phase of an RIA transient where the fuel pellet expands rapidly into the cladding prior to any meaningful heat transfer from the pellet to the cladding. This results in high stresses in the cladding resulting in crack propagation through the base Zircaloy metal and axially along the cladding tube. Failure by PCMI is a brittle failure mode and occurs at low cladding strains, approximately 2% hoop strain. If the cladding survives the PCMI phase of the transient, it may still fail due to ballooning and rupture induced by extended exposure to high temperature. Thermal transport from the fuel pin to the coolant is significantly reduced if a transition to film boiling on the cladding surface occurs. This result in both a rapid increase in fuel temperature, which drives fission gasmore » release, and a spike in cladding temperature, which results in loss of mechanical strength. If the internal pressure of the fuel rod is greater than the system pressure the cladding can inelastically deform and eventually rupture. Failure by swelling and rupture occurs at larger strains, generally greater than 5% hoop strain. While PCMI failures are generally seen as more limiting, the dominance of one failure mode over the other can be affected by both the cladding material conditions, and the transient evolution.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (AU), Office of Nuclear Safety
OSTI Identifier:
1637669
Report Number(s):
INL/EXT-20-57844-Rev001
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 - NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; High-burnup; Experiments; in Reactivity Initiated; Accidents; (HERA)

Citation Formats

Kamerman, David W, Jensen, Colby B, Wachs, Daniel M, and Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E. High-burnup Experiments in Reactivity Initiated Accidents (HERA). United States: N. p., 2020. Web.
Kamerman, David W, Jensen, Colby B, Wachs, Daniel M, & Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E. High-burnup Experiments in Reactivity Initiated Accidents (HERA). United States.
Kamerman, David W, Jensen, Colby B, Wachs, Daniel M, and Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E. Thu . "High-burnup Experiments in Reactivity Initiated Accidents (HERA)". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1637669.
@article{osti_1637669,
title = {High-burnup Experiments in Reactivity Initiated Accidents (HERA)},
author = {Kamerman, David W and Jensen, Colby B and Wachs, Daniel M and Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E},
abstractNote = {HERA is a joint experimental program (JEEP) operating within the Nuclear Energy Agency’s (NEA’s) framework for irradiation experiments (FIDES). HERA is dedicated to the understanding of light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance at high burnup under reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA). During RIAs the fuel cladding can be breached by one of two mechanisms; pellet-cladding mechanical interaction or high temperature balloon and rupture. Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) failure occurs in the early phase of an RIA transient where the fuel pellet expands rapidly into the cladding prior to any meaningful heat transfer from the pellet to the cladding. This results in high stresses in the cladding resulting in crack propagation through the base Zircaloy metal and axially along the cladding tube. Failure by PCMI is a brittle failure mode and occurs at low cladding strains, approximately 2% hoop strain. If the cladding survives the PCMI phase of the transient, it may still fail due to ballooning and rupture induced by extended exposure to high temperature. Thermal transport from the fuel pin to the coolant is significantly reduced if a transition to film boiling on the cladding surface occurs. This result in both a rapid increase in fuel temperature, which drives fission gas release, and a spike in cladding temperature, which results in loss of mechanical strength. If the internal pressure of the fuel rod is greater than the system pressure the cladding can inelastically deform and eventually rupture. Failure by swelling and rupture occurs at larger strains, generally greater than 5% hoop strain. While PCMI failures are generally seen as more limiting, the dominance of one failure mode over the other can be affected by both the cladding material conditions, and the transient evolution.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

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