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Title: Experimental study of different silicon sensor options for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

Abstract

During the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), planned to start in 2027, the accelerator is expected to deliver an instantaneous peak luminosity of up to 7.5×10 34 cm –2 s –1. A total integrated luminosity of 3000 or even 4000 fb –1 is foreseen to be delivered to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS over a decade, thereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. The CMS detector will undergo a major upgrade for the HL-LHC,with entirely new tracking detectors consisting of an Outer Tracker and Inner Tracker. However, the new tracking system will be exposed to a significantly higher radiation than the current tracker, requiring new radiation-hard sensors. CMS initiated an extensive irradiation and measurement campaign starting in 2009 to systematically compare the properties of different silicon materials and design choices for the Outer Tracker sensors. Several test structures and sensors were designed and implemented on 18 different combinations of wafer materials, thicknesses, and production technologies. The devices were electrically characterized before and after irradiation with neutrons,and with protons of different energies, with fluences corresponding to those expected at different radii of the CMS Outer Tracker after 3000 fb –1. The tests performed include studiesmore » with β sources, lasers, and beam scans. This paper compares the performance of different options for the HL-LHC silicon sensors with a focus on silicon bulk material and thickness.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1637509
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1638681
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-20-324-CMS; arXiv:2001.02023
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010005; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 04; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics; particle tracking detectors (solid-state detectors); radiation-hard detectors; Si microstrip and pad detectors

Citation Formats

Adam, W., Bergauer, T., Blöch, D., Brondolin, E., Dragicevic, M., Frühwirth, R., Hinger, V., Steininger, H., Treberer-Treberspurg, W., Beaumont, W., Croce, D. Di, Janssen, X., Lauwers, J., Mechelen, P. Van, Remortel, N. Van, Blekman, F., Chhibra, S. S., Clercq, J. De, D'Hondt, J., Lowette, S., Marchesini, I., Moortgat, S., Python, Q., Skovpen, K., Bols, E. SØrensen, Mulders, P. Van, Allard, Y., Beghin, D., Bilin, B., Brun, H., Clerbaux, B., Lentdecker, G. De, Delannoy, H., Deng, W., Favart, L., Goldouzian, R., Grebenyuk, A., Kalsi, A., Makarenko, I., Moureaux, L., Popov, A., Postiau, N., Robert, F., Song, Z., Thomas, L., Vanlaer, P., Vannerom, D., Wang, Q., Wang, H., Yang, Y., Bondu, O., Bruno, G., Caputo, C., David, P., Delaere, C., Delcourt, M., Giammanco, A., Krintiras, G., Lemaitre, V., Magitteri, A., Piotrzkowski, K., Saggio, A., Szilasi, N., Marono, M. Vidal, Vischia, P., Zobec, J., Brigljević, V., Ceci, S., Ferenček, D., Roguljić, M., Starodumov, A., \v, Eerola, P., Heikkilä, J., Brücken, E., Lampén, T., Luukka, P., Martikainen, L., Tuominen, E., Tuuva, T., Agram, J. -L., Andrea, J., Bloch, D., Bonnin, C., Bourgatte, G., Brom, J. -M., Chabert, E., Charles, L., Dangelser, E., Gelé, D., Goerlach, U., Gross, L., Krauth, M., Tonon, N., Baulieu, G., Boudoul, G., Caponetto, L., Chanon, N., Contardo, D., Dené, P., Dupasquier, T., Galbit, G., Lumb, N., Mirabito, L., Nodari, B., Perries, S., Donckt, M. Vander, Viret, S., Autermann, C., Böhm, S., Feld, L., Karpinski, W., Kiesel, M. K., Klein, K., Lipinski, M., Meuser, D., Pauls, A., Pierschel, G., Preuten, M., Rauch, M., Röwert, N., Schulz, J., Teroerde, M., Wehner, J., Wlochal, M., Dziwok, C., Fluegge, G., Müller, T., Pooth, O., Stahl, A., Ziemons, T., Aldaya, M., Asawatangtrakuldee, C., Eckerlin, G., Eckstein, D., Eichhorn, T., Gallo, E., Guthoff, M., Haranko, M., Harb, A., Keaveney, J., Kleinwort, C., Mankel, R., Maser, H., Meyer, M., Missiroli, M., Muhl, C., Mussgiller, A., Pitzl, D., Reichelt, O., Savitskyi, M., Schuetze, P., Stever, R., Walsh, R., Zuber, A., Benecke, A., Biskop, H., Buhmann, P., Centis-Vignali, M., Ebrahimi, A., Eich, M., Erfle, J., Feindt, F., Froehlich, A., Garutti, E., Gunnellini, P., Haller, J., Hinzmann, A., Junkes, A., Kasieczka, G., Klanner, R., Kutzner, V., Lange, T., Matysek, M., Mrowietz, M., Niemeyer, C., Nissan, Y., Pena, K., Perieanu, A., Poehlsen, T., Rieger, O., Scharf, C., Schleper, P., Schwandt, J., Schwarz, D., Sonneveld, J., Steinbrück, G., Tews, A., Vormwald, B., Wellhausen, J., Zoi, I., Abbas, M., Ardila, L., Balzer, M., Barth, C., Barvich, T., Baselga, M., Blank, T., Bögelspacher, F., Butz, E., Caselle, M., Boer, W. De, Dierlamm, A., Eber, R., Morabit, K. El, Gosewisch, J. -O., Hartmann, F., Hoffmann, K. -H., Husemann, U., Koppenhöfer, R., Kudella, S., Maier, S., Mallows, S., Metzler, M., Muller, Th., Neufeld, M., Nürnberg, A., Printz, M., Sander, O., Schell, D., Schröder, M., Schuh, T., Shvetsov, I., Simonis, H. -J., Steck, P., Wassmer, M., Weber, M., Weddigen, A., Anagnostou, G., Asenov, P., Assiouras, P., Daskalakis, G., Kyriakis, A., Loukas, D., Paspalaki, L., Balázs, T., Siklér, F., Vámi, T., Veszprémi, V., Bhardwaj, A., Jain, C., Jain, G., Ranjan, K., Bhattacharya, R., Dutta, S., Chowdhury, S. Roy, Saha, G., Sarkar, S., Cariola, P., Creanza, D., de Palma, M., Robertis, G. De, Fiore, L., Ince, M., Loddo, F., Maggi, G., Martiradonna, S., Mongelli, M., My, S., Selvaggi, G., Silvestris, L., Albergo, S., Costa, S., Mattia, A. Di, Potenza, R., Saizu, M. A., Tricomi, A., Tuve, C., Barbagli, G., Brianzi, M., Cassese, A., Ceccarelli, R., Ciaranfi, R., Ciulli, V., Civinini, C., D'Alessandro, R., Focardi, E., Latino, G., Lenzi, P., Meschini, M., Paoletti, S., Russo, L., Scarlini, E., Sguazzoni, G., Viliani, L., Cerchi, S., Ferro, F., Mulargia, R., Robutti, E., Brivio, F., Dinardo, M. E., Dini, P., Gennai, S., Guzzi, L., Malvezzi, S., Menasce, D., Moroni, L., Pedrini, D., Zuolo, D., Azzi, P., Bacchetta, N., Bisello, D., Dorigo, T., Pozzobon, N., Tosi, M., Canio, F. De, Gaioni, L., Manghisoni, M., Ratti, L., Re, V., Riceputi, E., Traversi, G., Baldinelli, G., Bianchi, F., Biasini, M., Bilei, G. M., Bizzaglia, S., Caprai, M., Checcucci, B., Ciangottini, D., Fanò, L., Farnesini, L., Ionica, M., Leonardi, R., Mantovani, G., Mariani, V., Menichelli, M., Morozzi, A., Moscatelli, F., Passeri, D., Placidi, P., Rossi, A., Santocchia, A., Spiga, D., Storchi, L., Turrioni, C., Androsov, K., Azzurri, P., Bagliesi, G., Basti, A., Beccherle, R., Bertacchi, V., Bianchini, L., Boccali, T., Borrello, L., Bosi, F., Castaldi, R., Ciocci, M. A., Dell'Orso, R., Fedi, G., Fiori, F., Giannini, L., Giassi, A., Grippo, M. T., Ligabue, F., Magazzu, G., Manca, E., Mandorli, G., Mazzoni, E., Messineo, A., Moggi, A., Morsani, F., Palla, F., Palmonari, F., Raffaelli, F., Rizzi, A., Spagnolo, P., Tenchini, R., Tonelli, G., Venturi, A., Verdini, P. G., Bellan, R., Costa, M., Covarelli, R., Dellacasa, G., Demaria, N., Salvo, A. Di, Mazza, G., Migliore, E., Monteil, E., Pacher, L., Paterno, A., Rivetti, A., Solano, A., Rivera, E. Curras, Campderros, J. Duarte, Fernandez, M., Gomez, G., Sanchez, F. J. Gonzalez, Echeverria, R. Jaramillo, Moya, D., Jimenez, E. Silva, Vila, I., Virto, A. L., Abbaneo, D., Ahmed, I., Akgun, B., Albert, E., Auzinger, G., Bendotti, J., Berruti, G., Blanchot, G., Boyer, F., Caratelli, A., Ceresa, D., Christiansen, J., Cichy, K., Daguin, J., Deelen, N., Detraz, S., Deyrail, D., Emriskova, N., Faccio, F., Filenius, A., Frank, N., French, T., Gajanec, R., Honma, A., Hugo, G., Hulek, W., Casas, L. M. Jara, Kaplon, J., Kloukinas, K., Kornmayer, A., Koss, N., Kottelat, L., Koukola, D., Kovacs, M., Rosa, A. La, Lenoir, P., Loos, R., Marchioro, A., Marconi, S., Mersi, S., Michelis, S., Martin, C. Nieto, Onnela, A., Orfanelli, S., Pakulski, T., Perez, A., Gomez, F. Perez, Pernot, J. -F., Petagna, P., Piazza, Q., Postema, H., Prousalidi, T., Rico, R. Puente, Scarfí, S., Spathopoulos, S., Sroka, S., Tropea, P., Troska, J., Tsirou, A., Vasey, F., Vichoudis, P., Bertl, W., Caminada, L., Deiters, K., Erdmann, W., Horisberger, R., Kaestli, H. -C., Kotlinski, D., Langenegger, U., Meier, B., Rohe, T., Streuli, S., Bachmair, F., Backhaus, M., Becker, R., Berger, P., di Calafiori, D., Djambazov, L., Donega, M., Grab, C., Hits, D., Hoss, J., Lustermann, W., Masciovecchio, M., Meinhard, M., Perovic, V., Perozzi, L., Ristic, B., Roeser, U., Ruini, D., Tavolaro, V., Wallny, R., Zhu, D., Aarrestad, T., Amsler, C., Bösiger, K., Canelli, F., Chiochia, V., Cosa, A. De, Burgo, R. Del, Galloni, C., Kilminster, B., Leontsinis, S., Maier, R., Rauco, G., Robmann, P., Takahashi, Y., Zucchetta, A., Chen, P. -H., Hou, W. -S., Lu, R. -S., Moya, M., Tsai, J. F., Burns, D., Clement, E., Cussans, D., Goldstein, J., Nasr-Storey, S. Seif El, Coughlan, J. A., Harder, K., Manolopoulos, K., Tomalin, I. R., Bainbridge, R., Borg, J., Hall, G., James, T., Pesaresi, M., Summers, S., Uchida, K., Cole, J., Hoad, C., Hobson, P., Reid, I. D., Bartek, R., Dominguez, A., Uniyal, R., Altopp, G., Burkle, B., Chen, C., Coubez, X., Duh, Y. -T., Hadley, M., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Hogan, J., Korotkov, A., Lee, J., Narain, M., Sagir, S., Spencer, E., Syarif, R., Truong, V., Usai, E., Voelker, J., Chertok, M., Conway, J., Funk, G., Jensen, F., Lander, R., Macauda, S., Pellett, D., Thomson, J., Yohay, R., Zhang, F., Hanson, G., Si, W., Gerosa, R., Krutelyov, S., Sharma, V., Yagil, A., Colegrove, O., Dutta, V., Gouskos, L., Incandela, J., Kyre, S., Qu, H., Quinnan, M., White, D., Cumalat, J. P., Ford, W. T., MacDonald, E., Perloff, A., Stenson, K., Ulmer, K. A., Wagner, S. R., Alexander, J., Cheng, Y., Chu, J., Conway, J., Cranshaw, D., Datta, A., McDermott, K., Monroy, J., Padilla, Y. Bordlemay, Quach, D., Rinkevicius, A., Ryd, A., Skinnari, L., Soffi, L., Strohman, C., Tao, Z., Thom, J., Tucker, J., Wittich, P., Zientek, M., Apresyan, A., Bakshi, A., Bolla, G., Burkett, K., Butler, J. N., Canepa, A., Cheung, H. W. K., Chramowicz, J., Derylo, G., Ghosh, A., Gingu, C., Gonzalez, H., Grünendahl, S., Hasegawa, S., Hoff, J., Hu, Z., Jindariani, S., Johnson, M., Lei, C. M., Lipton, R., Liu, M., Liu, T., Los, S., Matulik, M., Merkel, P., Nahn, S., Olsen, J., Prosser, A., Ravera, F., Ristori, L., Rivera, R., Schneider, B., Spalding, W. J., Spiegel, L., Timpone, S., Tran, N., Uplegger, L., Vernieri, C., Voirin, E., Weber, H. A., Berry, D. R., Chen, X., Dittmer, S., Evdokimov, A., Evdokimov, O., Gerber, C. E., Hofman, D. J., Mills, C., Alhusseini, M., Durgut, S., Nachtman, J., Onel, Y., Rude, C., Snyder, C., Yi, K., Eminizer, N., Gritsan, A., Maksimovic, P., Roskes, J., Swartz, M., Xiao, M., Baringer, P., Bean, A., Khalil, S., Kropivnitskaya, A., Majumder, D., Schmitz, E., Wilson, G., Ivanov, A., Mendis, R., Mitchell, T., Modak, A., Taylor, R., Acosta, J. G., Cremaldi, L. M., Oliveros, S., Perera, L., Summers, D., Bloom, K., Claes, D. R., Fangmeier, C., Golf, F., Kravchenko, I., Siado, J., Harrington, C., Iashvili, I., Kharchilava, A., Nguyen, D., Parker, A., Rappoccio, S., Roozbahani, B., Hahn, K., Liu, Y., Sung, K., Alimena, J., Cardwell, B., Francis, B., Hill, C. S., Malik, S., Norberg, S., Vargas, J. E. Ramirez, Das, S., Jones, M., Jung, A., Khatiwada, A., Negro, G., Thieman, J., Cheng, T., Dolen, J., Parashar, N., Ecklund, K. M., Freed, S., Kilpatrick, M., Nussbaum, T., Demina, R., Dulemba, J., Hindrichs, O., Bartz, E., Gandrakotra, A., Gershtein, Y., Halkiadakis, E., Hart, A., Kyriacou, S., Lath, A., Nash, K., Osherson, M., Schnetzer, S., Stone, R., Eusebi, R., D'Angelo, P., Johns, W., and Padeken, K. O. Experimental study of different silicon sensor options for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/04/P04017.
Adam, W., Bergauer, T., Blöch, D., Brondolin, E., Dragicevic, M., Frühwirth, R., Hinger, V., Steininger, H., Treberer-Treberspurg, W., Beaumont, W., Croce, D. Di, Janssen, X., Lauwers, J., Mechelen, P. Van, Remortel, N. Van, Blekman, F., Chhibra, S. S., Clercq, J. De, D'Hondt, J., Lowette, S., Marchesini, I., Moortgat, S., Python, Q., Skovpen, K., Bols, E. SØrensen, Mulders, P. Van, Allard, Y., Beghin, D., Bilin, B., Brun, H., Clerbaux, B., Lentdecker, G. De, Delannoy, H., Deng, W., Favart, L., Goldouzian, R., Grebenyuk, A., Kalsi, A., Makarenko, I., Moureaux, L., Popov, A., Postiau, N., Robert, F., Song, Z., Thomas, L., Vanlaer, P., Vannerom, D., Wang, Q., Wang, H., Yang, Y., Bondu, O., Bruno, G., Caputo, C., David, P., Delaere, C., Delcourt, M., Giammanco, A., Krintiras, G., Lemaitre, V., Magitteri, A., Piotrzkowski, K., Saggio, A., Szilasi, N., Marono, M. Vidal, Vischia, P., Zobec, J., Brigljević, V., Ceci, S., Ferenček, D., Roguljić, M., Starodumov, A., \v, Eerola, P., Heikkilä, J., Brücken, E., Lampén, T., Luukka, P., Martikainen, L., Tuominen, E., Tuuva, T., Agram, J. -L., Andrea, J., Bloch, D., Bonnin, C., Bourgatte, G., Brom, J. -M., Chabert, E., Charles, L., Dangelser, E., Gelé, D., Goerlach, U., Gross, L., Krauth, M., Tonon, N., Baulieu, G., Boudoul, G., Caponetto, L., Chanon, N., Contardo, D., Dené, P., Dupasquier, T., Galbit, G., Lumb, N., Mirabito, L., Nodari, B., Perries, S., Donckt, M. Vander, Viret, S., Autermann, C., Böhm, S., Feld, L., Karpinski, W., Kiesel, M. K., Klein, K., Lipinski, M., Meuser, D., Pauls, A., Pierschel, G., Preuten, M., Rauch, M., Röwert, N., Schulz, J., Teroerde, M., Wehner, J., Wlochal, M., Dziwok, C., Fluegge, G., Müller, T., Pooth, O., Stahl, A., Ziemons, T., Aldaya, M., Asawatangtrakuldee, C., Eckerlin, G., Eckstein, D., Eichhorn, T., Gallo, E., Guthoff, M., Haranko, M., Harb, A., Keaveney, J., Kleinwort, C., Mankel, R., Maser, H., Meyer, M., Missiroli, M., Muhl, C., Mussgiller, A., Pitzl, D., Reichelt, O., Savitskyi, M., Schuetze, P., Stever, R., Walsh, R., Zuber, A., Benecke, A., Biskop, H., Buhmann, P., Centis-Vignali, M., Ebrahimi, A., Eich, M., Erfle, J., Feindt, F., Froehlich, A., Garutti, E., Gunnellini, P., Haller, J., Hinzmann, A., Junkes, A., Kasieczka, G., Klanner, R., Kutzner, V., Lange, T., Matysek, M., Mrowietz, M., Niemeyer, C., Nissan, Y., Pena, K., Perieanu, A., Poehlsen, T., Rieger, O., Scharf, C., Schleper, P., Schwandt, J., Schwarz, D., Sonneveld, J., Steinbrück, G., Tews, A., Vormwald, B., Wellhausen, J., Zoi, I., Abbas, M., Ardila, L., Balzer, M., Barth, C., Barvich, T., Baselga, M., Blank, T., Bögelspacher, F., Butz, E., Caselle, M., Boer, W. De, Dierlamm, A., Eber, R., Morabit, K. El, Gosewisch, J. -O., Hartmann, F., Hoffmann, K. -H., Husemann, U., Koppenhöfer, R., Kudella, S., Maier, S., Mallows, S., Metzler, M., Muller, Th., Neufeld, M., Nürnberg, A., Printz, M., Sander, O., Schell, D., Schröder, M., Schuh, T., Shvetsov, I., Simonis, H. -J., Steck, P., Wassmer, M., Weber, M., Weddigen, A., Anagnostou, G., Asenov, P., Assiouras, P., Daskalakis, G., Kyriakis, A., Loukas, D., Paspalaki, L., Balázs, T., Siklér, F., Vámi, T., Veszprémi, V., Bhardwaj, A., Jain, C., Jain, G., Ranjan, K., Bhattacharya, R., Dutta, S., Chowdhury, S. Roy, Saha, G., Sarkar, S., Cariola, P., Creanza, D., de Palma, M., Robertis, G. De, Fiore, L., Ince, M., Loddo, F., Maggi, G., Martiradonna, S., Mongelli, M., My, S., Selvaggi, G., Silvestris, L., Albergo, S., Costa, S., Mattia, A. Di, Potenza, R., Saizu, M. A., Tricomi, A., Tuve, C., Barbagli, G., Brianzi, M., Cassese, A., Ceccarelli, R., Ciaranfi, R., Ciulli, V., Civinini, C., D'Alessandro, R., Focardi, E., Latino, G., Lenzi, P., Meschini, M., Paoletti, S., Russo, L., Scarlini, E., Sguazzoni, G., Viliani, L., Cerchi, S., Ferro, F., Mulargia, R., Robutti, E., Brivio, F., Dinardo, M. E., Dini, P., Gennai, S., Guzzi, L., Malvezzi, S., Menasce, D., Moroni, L., Pedrini, D., Zuolo, D., Azzi, P., Bacchetta, N., Bisello, D., Dorigo, T., Pozzobon, N., Tosi, M., Canio, F. De, Gaioni, L., Manghisoni, M., Ratti, L., Re, V., Riceputi, E., Traversi, G., Baldinelli, G., Bianchi, F., Biasini, M., Bilei, G. M., Bizzaglia, S., Caprai, M., Checcucci, B., Ciangottini, D., Fanò, L., Farnesini, L., Ionica, M., Leonardi, R., Mantovani, G., Mariani, V., Menichelli, M., Morozzi, A., Moscatelli, F., Passeri, D., Placidi, P., Rossi, A., Santocchia, A., Spiga, D., Storchi, L., Turrioni, C., Androsov, K., Azzurri, P., Bagliesi, G., Basti, A., Beccherle, R., Bertacchi, V., Bianchini, L., Boccali, T., Borrello, L., Bosi, F., Castaldi, R., Ciocci, M. A., Dell'Orso, R., Fedi, G., Fiori, F., Giannini, L., Giassi, A., Grippo, M. T., Ligabue, F., Magazzu, G., Manca, E., Mandorli, G., Mazzoni, E., Messineo, A., Moggi, A., Morsani, F., Palla, F., Palmonari, F., Raffaelli, F., Rizzi, A., Spagnolo, P., Tenchini, R., Tonelli, G., Venturi, A., Verdini, P. G., Bellan, R., Costa, M., Covarelli, R., Dellacasa, G., Demaria, N., Salvo, A. Di, Mazza, G., Migliore, E., Monteil, E., Pacher, L., Paterno, A., Rivetti, A., Solano, A., Rivera, E. Curras, Campderros, J. Duarte, Fernandez, M., Gomez, G., Sanchez, F. J. Gonzalez, Echeverria, R. Jaramillo, Moya, D., Jimenez, E. Silva, Vila, I., Virto, A. L., Abbaneo, D., Ahmed, I., Akgun, B., Albert, E., Auzinger, G., Bendotti, J., Berruti, G., Blanchot, G., Boyer, F., Caratelli, A., Ceresa, D., Christiansen, J., Cichy, K., Daguin, J., Deelen, N., Detraz, S., Deyrail, D., Emriskova, N., Faccio, F., Filenius, A., Frank, N., French, T., Gajanec, R., Honma, A., Hugo, G., Hulek, W., Casas, L. M. Jara, Kaplon, J., Kloukinas, K., Kornmayer, A., Koss, N., Kottelat, L., Koukola, D., Kovacs, M., Rosa, A. La, Lenoir, P., Loos, R., Marchioro, A., Marconi, S., Mersi, S., Michelis, S., Martin, C. Nieto, Onnela, A., Orfanelli, S., Pakulski, T., Perez, A., Gomez, F. Perez, Pernot, J. -F., Petagna, P., Piazza, Q., Postema, H., Prousalidi, T., Rico, R. Puente, Scarfí, S., Spathopoulos, S., Sroka, S., Tropea, P., Troska, J., Tsirou, A., Vasey, F., Vichoudis, P., Bertl, W., Caminada, L., Deiters, K., Erdmann, W., Horisberger, R., Kaestli, H. -C., Kotlinski, D., Langenegger, U., Meier, B., Rohe, T., Streuli, S., Bachmair, F., Backhaus, M., Becker, R., Berger, P., di Calafiori, D., Djambazov, L., Donega, M., Grab, C., Hits, D., Hoss, J., Lustermann, W., Masciovecchio, M., Meinhard, M., Perovic, V., Perozzi, L., Ristic, B., Roeser, U., Ruini, D., Tavolaro, V., Wallny, R., Zhu, D., Aarrestad, T., Amsler, C., Bösiger, K., Canelli, F., Chiochia, V., Cosa, A. De, Burgo, R. Del, Galloni, C., Kilminster, B., Leontsinis, S., Maier, R., Rauco, G., Robmann, P., Takahashi, Y., Zucchetta, A., Chen, P. -H., Hou, W. -S., Lu, R. -S., Moya, M., Tsai, J. F., Burns, D., Clement, E., Cussans, D., Goldstein, J., Nasr-Storey, S. Seif El, Coughlan, J. A., Harder, K., Manolopoulos, K., Tomalin, I. R., Bainbridge, R., Borg, J., Hall, G., James, T., Pesaresi, M., Summers, S., Uchida, K., Cole, J., Hoad, C., Hobson, P., Reid, I. D., Bartek, R., Dominguez, A., Uniyal, R., Altopp, G., Burkle, B., Chen, C., Coubez, X., Duh, Y. -T., Hadley, M., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Hogan, J., Korotkov, A., Lee, J., Narain, M., Sagir, S., Spencer, E., Syarif, R., Truong, V., Usai, E., Voelker, J., Chertok, M., Conway, J., Funk, G., Jensen, F., Lander, R., Macauda, S., Pellett, D., Thomson, J., Yohay, R., Zhang, F., Hanson, G., Si, W., Gerosa, R., Krutelyov, S., Sharma, V., Yagil, A., Colegrove, O., Dutta, V., Gouskos, L., Incandela, J., Kyre, S., Qu, H., Quinnan, M., White, D., Cumalat, J. P., Ford, W. T., MacDonald, E., Perloff, A., Stenson, K., Ulmer, K. A., Wagner, S. R., Alexander, J., Cheng, Y., Chu, J., Conway, J., Cranshaw, D., Datta, A., McDermott, K., Monroy, J., Padilla, Y. Bordlemay, Quach, D., Rinkevicius, A., Ryd, A., Skinnari, L., Soffi, L., Strohman, C., Tao, Z., Thom, J., Tucker, J., Wittich, P., Zientek, M., Apresyan, A., Bakshi, A., Bolla, G., Burkett, K., Butler, J. N., Canepa, A., Cheung, H. W. K., Chramowicz, J., Derylo, G., Ghosh, A., Gingu, C., Gonzalez, H., Grünendahl, S., Hasegawa, S., Hoff, J., Hu, Z., Jindariani, S., Johnson, M., Lei, C. M., Lipton, R., Liu, M., Liu, T., Los, S., Matulik, M., Merkel, P., Nahn, S., Olsen, J., Prosser, A., Ravera, F., Ristori, L., Rivera, R., Schneider, B., Spalding, W. J., Spiegel, L., Timpone, S., Tran, N., Uplegger, L., Vernieri, C., Voirin, E., Weber, H. A., Berry, D. R., Chen, X., Dittmer, S., Evdokimov, A., Evdokimov, O., Gerber, C. E., Hofman, D. J., Mills, C., Alhusseini, M., Durgut, S., Nachtman, J., Onel, Y., Rude, C., Snyder, C., Yi, K., Eminizer, N., Gritsan, A., Maksimovic, P., Roskes, J., Swartz, M., Xiao, M., Baringer, P., Bean, A., Khalil, S., Kropivnitskaya, A., Majumder, D., Schmitz, E., Wilson, G., Ivanov, A., Mendis, R., Mitchell, T., Modak, A., Taylor, R., Acosta, J. G., Cremaldi, L. M., Oliveros, S., Perera, L., Summers, D., Bloom, K., Claes, D. R., Fangmeier, C., Golf, F., Kravchenko, I., Siado, J., Harrington, C., Iashvili, I., Kharchilava, A., Nguyen, D., Parker, A., Rappoccio, S., Roozbahani, B., Hahn, K., Liu, Y., Sung, K., Alimena, J., Cardwell, B., Francis, B., Hill, C. S., Malik, S., Norberg, S., Vargas, J. E. Ramirez, Das, S., Jones, M., Jung, A., Khatiwada, A., Negro, G., Thieman, J., Cheng, T., Dolen, J., Parashar, N., Ecklund, K. M., Freed, S., Kilpatrick, M., Nussbaum, T., Demina, R., Dulemba, J., Hindrichs, O., Bartz, E., Gandrakotra, A., Gershtein, Y., Halkiadakis, E., Hart, A., Kyriacou, S., Lath, A., Nash, K., Osherson, M., Schnetzer, S., Stone, R., Eusebi, R., D'Angelo, P., Johns, W., & Padeken, K. O. Experimental study of different silicon sensor options for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/04/P04017.
Adam, W., Bergauer, T., Blöch, D., Brondolin, E., Dragicevic, M., Frühwirth, R., Hinger, V., Steininger, H., Treberer-Treberspurg, W., Beaumont, W., Croce, D. Di, Janssen, X., Lauwers, J., Mechelen, P. Van, Remortel, N. Van, Blekman, F., Chhibra, S. S., Clercq, J. De, D'Hondt, J., Lowette, S., Marchesini, I., Moortgat, S., Python, Q., Skovpen, K., Bols, E. SØrensen, Mulders, P. Van, Allard, Y., Beghin, D., Bilin, B., Brun, H., Clerbaux, B., Lentdecker, G. De, Delannoy, H., Deng, W., Favart, L., Goldouzian, R., Grebenyuk, A., Kalsi, A., Makarenko, I., Moureaux, L., Popov, A., Postiau, N., Robert, F., Song, Z., Thomas, L., Vanlaer, P., Vannerom, D., Wang, Q., Wang, H., Yang, Y., Bondu, O., Bruno, G., Caputo, C., David, P., Delaere, C., Delcourt, M., Giammanco, A., Krintiras, G., Lemaitre, V., Magitteri, A., Piotrzkowski, K., Saggio, A., Szilasi, N., Marono, M. 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De, Dierlamm, A., Eber, R., Morabit, K. El, Gosewisch, J. -O., Hartmann, F., Hoffmann, K. -H., Husemann, U., Koppenhöfer, R., Kudella, S., Maier, S., Mallows, S., Metzler, M., Muller, Th., Neufeld, M., Nürnberg, A., Printz, M., Sander, O., Schell, D., Schröder, M., Schuh, T., Shvetsov, I., Simonis, H. -J., Steck, P., Wassmer, M., Weber, M., Weddigen, A., Anagnostou, G., Asenov, P., Assiouras, P., Daskalakis, G., Kyriakis, A., Loukas, D., Paspalaki, L., Balázs, T., Siklér, F., Vámi, T., Veszprémi, V., Bhardwaj, A., Jain, C., Jain, G., Ranjan, K., Bhattacharya, R., Dutta, S., Chowdhury, S. Roy, Saha, G., Sarkar, S., Cariola, P., Creanza, D., de Palma, M., Robertis, G. De, Fiore, L., Ince, M., Loddo, F., Maggi, G., Martiradonna, S., Mongelli, M., My, S., Selvaggi, G., Silvestris, L., Albergo, S., Costa, S., Mattia, A. Di, Potenza, R., Saizu, M. A., Tricomi, A., Tuve, C., Barbagli, G., Brianzi, M., Cassese, A., Ceccarelli, R., Ciaranfi, R., Ciulli, V., Civinini, C., D'Alessandro, R., Focardi, E., Latino, G., Lenzi, P., Meschini, M., Paoletti, S., Russo, L., Scarlini, E., Sguazzoni, G., Viliani, L., Cerchi, S., Ferro, F., Mulargia, R., Robutti, E., Brivio, F., Dinardo, M. E., Dini, P., Gennai, S., Guzzi, L., Malvezzi, S., Menasce, D., Moroni, L., Pedrini, D., Zuolo, D., Azzi, P., Bacchetta, N., Bisello, D., Dorigo, T., Pozzobon, N., Tosi, M., Canio, F. De, Gaioni, L., Manghisoni, M., Ratti, L., Re, V., Riceputi, E., Traversi, G., Baldinelli, G., Bianchi, F., Biasini, M., Bilei, G. M., Bizzaglia, S., Caprai, M., Checcucci, B., Ciangottini, D., Fanò, L., Farnesini, L., Ionica, M., Leonardi, R., Mantovani, G., Mariani, V., Menichelli, M., Morozzi, A., Moscatelli, F., Passeri, D., Placidi, P., Rossi, A., Santocchia, A., Spiga, D., Storchi, L., Turrioni, C., Androsov, K., Azzurri, P., Bagliesi, G., Basti, A., Beccherle, R., Bertacchi, V., Bianchini, L., Boccali, T., Borrello, L., Bosi, F., Castaldi, R., Ciocci, M. A., Dell'Orso, R., Fedi, G., Fiori, F., Giannini, L., Giassi, A., Grippo, M. T., Ligabue, F., Magazzu, G., Manca, E., Mandorli, G., Mazzoni, E., Messineo, A., Moggi, A., Morsani, F., Palla, F., Palmonari, F., Raffaelli, F., Rizzi, A., Spagnolo, P., Tenchini, R., Tonelli, G., Venturi, A., Verdini, P. G., Bellan, R., Costa, M., Covarelli, R., Dellacasa, G., Demaria, N., Salvo, A. Di, Mazza, G., Migliore, E., Monteil, E., Pacher, L., Paterno, A., Rivetti, A., Solano, A., Rivera, E. Curras, Campderros, J. Duarte, Fernandez, M., Gomez, G., Sanchez, F. J. Gonzalez, Echeverria, R. Jaramillo, Moya, D., Jimenez, E. Silva, Vila, I., Virto, A. L., Abbaneo, D., Ahmed, I., Akgun, B., Albert, E., Auzinger, G., Bendotti, J., Berruti, G., Blanchot, G., Boyer, F., Caratelli, A., Ceresa, D., Christiansen, J., Cichy, K., Daguin, J., Deelen, N., Detraz, S., Deyrail, D., Emriskova, N., Faccio, F., Filenius, A., Frank, N., French, T., Gajanec, R., Honma, A., Hugo, G., Hulek, W., Casas, L. M. Jara, Kaplon, J., Kloukinas, K., Kornmayer, A., Koss, N., Kottelat, L., Koukola, D., Kovacs, M., Rosa, A. La, Lenoir, P., Loos, R., Marchioro, A., Marconi, S., Mersi, S., Michelis, S., Martin, C. Nieto, Onnela, A., Orfanelli, S., Pakulski, T., Perez, A., Gomez, F. Perez, Pernot, J. -F., Petagna, P., Piazza, Q., Postema, H., Prousalidi, T., Rico, R. Puente, Scarfí, S., Spathopoulos, S., Sroka, S., Tropea, P., Troska, J., Tsirou, A., Vasey, F., Vichoudis, P., Bertl, W., Caminada, L., Deiters, K., Erdmann, W., Horisberger, R., Kaestli, H. -C., Kotlinski, D., Langenegger, U., Meier, B., Rohe, T., Streuli, S., Bachmair, F., Backhaus, M., Becker, R., Berger, P., di Calafiori, D., Djambazov, L., Donega, M., Grab, C., Hits, D., Hoss, J., Lustermann, W., Masciovecchio, M., Meinhard, M., Perovic, V., Perozzi, L., Ristic, B., Roeser, U., Ruini, D., Tavolaro, V., Wallny, R., Zhu, D., Aarrestad, T., Amsler, C., Bösiger, K., Canelli, F., Chiochia, V., Cosa, A. De, Burgo, R. Del, Galloni, C., Kilminster, B., Leontsinis, S., Maier, R., Rauco, G., Robmann, P., Takahashi, Y., Zucchetta, A., Chen, P. -H., Hou, W. -S., Lu, R. -S., Moya, M., Tsai, J. F., Burns, D., Clement, E., Cussans, D., Goldstein, J., Nasr-Storey, S. Seif El, Coughlan, J. A., Harder, K., Manolopoulos, K., Tomalin, I. R., Bainbridge, R., Borg, J., Hall, G., James, T., Pesaresi, M., Summers, S., Uchida, K., Cole, J., Hoad, C., Hobson, P., Reid, I. D., Bartek, R., Dominguez, A., Uniyal, R., Altopp, G., Burkle, B., Chen, C., Coubez, X., Duh, Y. -T., Hadley, M., Heintz, U., Hinton, N., Hogan, J., Korotkov, A., Lee, J., Narain, M., Sagir, S., Spencer, E., Syarif, R., Truong, V., Usai, E., Voelker, J., Chertok, M., Conway, J., Funk, G., Jensen, F., Lander, R., Macauda, S., Pellett, D., Thomson, J., Yohay, R., Zhang, F., Hanson, G., Si, W., Gerosa, R., Krutelyov, S., Sharma, V., Yagil, A., Colegrove, O., Dutta, V., Gouskos, L., Incandela, J., Kyre, S., Qu, H., Quinnan, M., White, D., Cumalat, J. P., Ford, W. T., MacDonald, E., Perloff, A., Stenson, K., Ulmer, K. A., Wagner, S. R., Alexander, J., Cheng, Y., Chu, J., Conway, J., Cranshaw, D., Datta, A., McDermott, K., Monroy, J., Padilla, Y. Bordlemay, Quach, D., Rinkevicius, A., Ryd, A., Skinnari, L., Soffi, L., Strohman, C., Tao, Z., Thom, J., Tucker, J., Wittich, P., Zientek, M., Apresyan, A., Bakshi, A., Bolla, G., Burkett, K., Butler, J. N., Canepa, A., Cheung, H. W. K., Chramowicz, J., Derylo, G., Ghosh, A., Gingu, C., Gonzalez, H., Grünendahl, S., Hasegawa, S., Hoff, J., Hu, Z., Jindariani, S., Johnson, M., Lei, C. M., Lipton, R., Liu, M., Liu, T., Los, S., Matulik, M., Merkel, P., Nahn, S., Olsen, J., Prosser, A., Ravera, F., Ristori, L., Rivera, R., Schneider, B., Spalding, W. J., Spiegel, L., Timpone, S., Tran, N., Uplegger, L., Vernieri, C., Voirin, E., Weber, H. A., Berry, D. R., Chen, X., Dittmer, S., Evdokimov, A., Evdokimov, O., Gerber, C. E., Hofman, D. J., Mills, C., Alhusseini, M., Durgut, S., Nachtman, J., Onel, Y., Rude, C., Snyder, C., Yi, K., Eminizer, N., Gritsan, A., Maksimovic, P., Roskes, J., Swartz, M., Xiao, M., Baringer, P., Bean, A., Khalil, S., Kropivnitskaya, A., Majumder, D., Schmitz, E., Wilson, G., Ivanov, A., Mendis, R., Mitchell, T., Modak, A., Taylor, R., Acosta, J. G., Cremaldi, L. M., Oliveros, S., Perera, L., Summers, D., Bloom, K., Claes, D. R., Fangmeier, C., Golf, F., Kravchenko, I., Siado, J., Harrington, C., Iashvili, I., Kharchilava, A., Nguyen, D., Parker, A., Rappoccio, S., Roozbahani, B., Hahn, K., Liu, Y., Sung, K., Alimena, J., Cardwell, B., Francis, B., Hill, C. S., Malik, S., Norberg, S., Vargas, J. E. Ramirez, Das, S., Jones, M., Jung, A., Khatiwada, A., Negro, G., Thieman, J., Cheng, T., Dolen, J., Parashar, N., Ecklund, K. M., Freed, S., Kilpatrick, M., Nussbaum, T., Demina, R., Dulemba, J., Hindrichs, O., Bartz, E., Gandrakotra, A., Gershtein, Y., Halkiadakis, E., Hart, A., Kyriacou, S., Lath, A., Nash, K., Osherson, M., Schnetzer, S., Stone, R., Eusebi, R., D'Angelo, P., Johns, W., and Padeken, K. O. Wed . "Experimental study of different silicon sensor options for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/15/04/P04017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1637509.
@article{osti_1637509,
title = {Experimental study of different silicon sensor options for the upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker},
author = {Adam, W. and Bergauer, T. and Blöch, D. and Brondolin, E. and Dragicevic, M. and Frühwirth, R. and Hinger, V. and Steininger, H. and Treberer-Treberspurg, W. and Beaumont, W. and Croce, D. Di and Janssen, X. and Lauwers, J. and Mechelen, P. Van and Remortel, N. Van and Blekman, F. and Chhibra, S. S. and Clercq, J. De and D'Hondt, J. and Lowette, S. and Marchesini, I. and Moortgat, S. and Python, Q. and Skovpen, K. and Bols, E. SØrensen and Mulders, P. Van and Allard, Y. and Beghin, D. and Bilin, B. and Brun, H. and Clerbaux, B. and Lentdecker, G. 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Ramirez and Das, S. and Jones, M. and Jung, A. and Khatiwada, A. and Negro, G. and Thieman, J. and Cheng, T. and Dolen, J. and Parashar, N. and Ecklund, K. M. and Freed, S. and Kilpatrick, M. and Nussbaum, T. and Demina, R. and Dulemba, J. and Hindrichs, O. and Bartz, E. and Gandrakotra, A. and Gershtein, Y. and Halkiadakis, E. and Hart, A. and Kyriacou, S. and Lath, A. and Nash, K. and Osherson, M. and Schnetzer, S. and Stone, R. and Eusebi, R. and D'Angelo, P. and Johns, W. and Padeken, K. O.},
abstractNote = {During the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), planned to start in 2027, the accelerator is expected to deliver an instantaneous peak luminosity of up to 7.5×1034 cm–2 s–1. A total integrated luminosity of 3000 or even 4000 fb–1 is foreseen to be delivered to the general purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS over a decade, thereby increasing the discovery potential of the LHC experiments significantly. The CMS detector will undergo a major upgrade for the HL-LHC,with entirely new tracking detectors consisting of an Outer Tracker and Inner Tracker. However, the new tracking system will be exposed to a significantly higher radiation than the current tracker, requiring new radiation-hard sensors. CMS initiated an extensive irradiation and measurement campaign starting in 2009 to systematically compare the properties of different silicon materials and design choices for the Outer Tracker sensors. Several test structures and sensors were designed and implemented on 18 different combinations of wafer materials, thicknesses, and production technologies. The devices were electrically characterized before and after irradiation with neutrons,and with protons of different energies, with fluences corresponding to those expected at different radii of the CMS Outer Tracker after 3000 fb–1. The tests performed include studies with β sources, lasers, and beam scans. This paper compares the performance of different options for the HL-LHC silicon sensors with a focus on silicon bulk material and thickness.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/15/04/P04017},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
issn = {1748-0221},
number = 04,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

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