skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Role of graphite crystal structure on the shock-induced formation of cubic and hexagonal diamond

Abstract

Since cubic diamond was first recovered from explosively shocked graphite samples in 1961, the shock-induced graphite to diamond phase transformation has been of great scientific and technological interest. Recent real time x-ray diffraction results on different types of pyrolytic graphite under shock compression have reported hexagonal diamond and cubic diamond formation at comparable stresses. To resolve and understand these differences, synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to examine, in real time, the plate impact shock response of two grades of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and as-deposited pyrolytic graphite — at stresses below and above their respective phase transformation stresses. The present results show that at their respective transformation stresses, crystallites in as-deposited pyrolytic graphite are compressed ~30% more along the c-axis than crystallites in both highly oriented pyrolytic graphite types. This work establishes that the high-pressure phase of even ZYH-grade highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (a less oriented variety with mosaic spread 3.5°±1.5°), at ~50 GPa, is hexagonal diamond. In contrast, the high-pressure phase of as-deposited pyrolytic graphite (mosaic spread ~45°), in the present work, at ~60 GPa, is cubic diamond. Analysis of ambient x-ray diffraction data demonstrates that the crystallites in the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples have the hexagonalmore » graphite crystal structure with 3D long range order. In contrast, the crystallites in the as-deposited pyrolytic graphite samples have a turbostratic carbon crystal structure which lacks rotational/translational order between parallel adjacent graphene layers. The ambient results suggest that the observed high-pressure crystal structure of shocked graphite depends strongly on the initial crystal structure — shock compression along the c-axis of hexagonal graphite (in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) results in highly textured hexagonal diamond and shock compression of turbostratic carbon (in as-deposited pyrolytic graphite) results in nanograined cubic diamond. The present results reconcile previous disparate findings, establish the definitive role of the initial crystal structure, and provide a benchmark for theoretical simulations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Institute for Shock Physics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP)
OSTI Identifier:
1632680
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1678727
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0002007; NA0002442; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 101; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Crystal structure; Shock waves; Solid-solid transformations; Structural phase transition; Polycrystalline materials; Interferometry; X-ray diffraction

Citation Formats

Volz, Travis J., Turneaure, Stefan J., Sharma, Surinder M., and Gupta, Y. M. Role of graphite crystal structure on the shock-induced formation of cubic and hexagonal diamond. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.101.224109.
Volz, Travis J., Turneaure, Stefan J., Sharma, Surinder M., & Gupta, Y. M. Role of graphite crystal structure on the shock-induced formation of cubic and hexagonal diamond. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.224109
Volz, Travis J., Turneaure, Stefan J., Sharma, Surinder M., and Gupta, Y. M. 2020. "Role of graphite crystal structure on the shock-induced formation of cubic and hexagonal diamond". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.101.224109. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1632680.
@article{osti_1632680,
title = {Role of graphite crystal structure on the shock-induced formation of cubic and hexagonal diamond},
author = {Volz, Travis J. and Turneaure, Stefan J. and Sharma, Surinder M. and Gupta, Y. M.},
abstractNote = {Since cubic diamond was first recovered from explosively shocked graphite samples in 1961, the shock-induced graphite to diamond phase transformation has been of great scientific and technological interest. Recent real time x-ray diffraction results on different types of pyrolytic graphite under shock compression have reported hexagonal diamond and cubic diamond formation at comparable stresses. To resolve and understand these differences, synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to examine, in real time, the plate impact shock response of two grades of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and as-deposited pyrolytic graphite — at stresses below and above their respective phase transformation stresses. The present results show that at their respective transformation stresses, crystallites in as-deposited pyrolytic graphite are compressed ~30% more along the c-axis than crystallites in both highly oriented pyrolytic graphite types. This work establishes that the high-pressure phase of even ZYH-grade highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (a less oriented variety with mosaic spread 3.5°±1.5°), at ~50 GPa, is hexagonal diamond. In contrast, the high-pressure phase of as-deposited pyrolytic graphite (mosaic spread ~45°), in the present work, at ~60 GPa, is cubic diamond. Analysis of ambient x-ray diffraction data demonstrates that the crystallites in the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples have the hexagonal graphite crystal structure with 3D long range order. In contrast, the crystallites in the as-deposited pyrolytic graphite samples have a turbostratic carbon crystal structure which lacks rotational/translational order between parallel adjacent graphene layers. The ambient results suggest that the observed high-pressure crystal structure of shocked graphite depends strongly on the initial crystal structure — shock compression along the c-axis of hexagonal graphite (in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) results in highly textured hexagonal diamond and shock compression of turbostratic carbon (in as-deposited pyrolytic graphite) results in nanograined cubic diamond. The present results reconcile previous disparate findings, establish the definitive role of the initial crystal structure, and provide a benchmark for theoretical simulations.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.101.224109},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1632680}, journal = {Physical Review B},
issn = {2469-9950},
number = 22,
volume = 101,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {6}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Synthesis of quenchable amorphous diamond
journal, August 2017


An Antarctic iron meteorite contains preterrestrial impact-produced diamond and lonsdaleite
journal, June 1981


Pressure-Induced Transformation Path of Graphite to Diamond
journal, May 1995


The structure of graphitic carbons
journal, May 1951


Superhard Monoclinic Polymorph of Carbon
journal, April 2009


Laser interferometer for measuring high velocities of any reflecting surface
journal, November 1972


Compact system for high-speed velocimetry using heterodyne techniques
journal, August 2006


Pseudopotential total-energy study of the transition from rhombohedral graphite to diamond
journal, July 1986


Low-Temperature Phase Transformation from Graphite to s p 3 Orthorhombic Carbon
journal, February 2011


The pressure-temperature phase and transformation diagram for carbon; updated through 1994
journal, January 1996


Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite
journal, March 2016


Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Shock Compressed Graphite
journal, June 2013


Hexagonal Diamond—A New Form of Carbon
journal, May 1967


Quantifying hexagonal stacking in diamond
journal, July 2019


Third-order elastic constants of diamond determined from experimental data
journal, June 2016


Hexagonal Diamonds in Meteorites: Implications
journal, February 1967


Elastic Constants of Compression‐Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite
journal, July 1970


Origin of Diamonds in the Ureilites
journal, March 1964


Crystal Structure of Cold Compressed Graphite
journal, February 2012


Formation of Diamond by Explosive Shock
journal, June 1961


Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate: a fast, efficient new scintillator
journal, January 1992


Shock compression of pyrolytic graphite to 18 GPa: Role of orientational order
journal, September 2013


Extent of stacking disorder in diamond
journal, October 2015


Graphite to Diamond: Origin for Kinetics Selectivity
journal, February 2017


Hugoniot equation of state of twelve rocks
journal, October 1967


The interlayer spacing of graphite
journal, November 1951


Shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments
journal, July 2009


Velocity sensing interferometer (VISAR) modification
journal, January 1979


Ultrafast transformation of graphite to diamond: An ab initio study of graphite under shock compression
journal, May 2008


X‐ray diffraction study of single crystals undergoing shock‐wave compression
journal, July 1972


Compression of polyhedral graphite up to 43 GPa and x-ray diffraction study on elasticity and stability of the graphite phase
journal, June 2004


Lonsdaleite – A material stronger and stiffer than diamond
journal, August 2011


Constant-pressure first-principles studies on the transition states of the graphite-diamond transformation
journal, December 1996


Effect of Pressure on the Resistance of Pyrolytic Graphite
journal, August 1962


Harder than Diamond: Superior Indentation Strength of Wurtzite BN and Lonsdaleite
journal, February 2009


Carbon: A New Crystalline Phase
journal, May 1963


Detailed Structures of Hexagonal Diamond (lonsdaleite) and Wurtzite-type BN
journal, April 2003


Structural characterization of natural diamond shocked to 60 GPa; implications for Earth and planetary systems
journal, November 2016


Families of Superhard Crystalline Carbon Allotropes Constructed via Cold Compression of Graphite and Nanotubes
journal, March 2012


The mechanical and strength properties of diamond
journal, November 2012


Lonsdaleite is faulted and twinned cubic diamond and does not exist as a discrete material
journal, November 2014


Submicrosecond polymorphic transformations accompanying shock compression of graphite
journal, December 2010


Shock-induced martensitic phase transformation of oriented graphite to diamond
journal, January 1991


Body-Centered Tetragonal C 4 : A Viable s p 3 Carbon Allotrope
journal, March 2010


Analysis of the Pulse Superposition Method for Measuring Ultrasonic Wave Velocities as a Function of Temperature and Pressure
journal, May 1962


Ab initio study of the formation of transparent carbon under pressure
journal, October 2010


Crystal structure of graphite under room-temperature compression and decompression
journal, July 2012


Shock‐induced martensitic transformation of highly oriented graphite to diamond
journal, May 1992


Nanodiamond nucleation below 2273K at 15GPa from carbons with different structural organizations
journal, March 2007


High-pressure in situ x-ray-diffraction study of the phase transformation from graphite to hexagonal diamond at room temperature
journal, September 1992


High-pressure structural and electronic properties of carbon
journal, August 1987


Transformation of shock-compressed graphite to hexagonal diamond in nanoseconds
journal, October 2017


Lonsdaleite, a Hexagonal Polymorph of Diamond
journal, May 1967


Graphite to diamond transformation under shock compression: Role of orientational order
journal, June 2019


Direct Conversion of Graphite to Diamond in Static Pressure Apparatus
journal, February 1963


X-Ray Diffraction in Random Layer Lattices
journal, May 1941


Compressibility of Pyrolytic Graphite
journal, January 1964


Nucleation mechanism for the direct graphite-to-diamond phase transition
journal, July 2011


Determining the refractive index of shocked [100] lithium fluoride to the limit of transmissibility
journal, July 2014


Two-dimensional detector software: From real detector to idealised image or two-theta scan
journal, January 1996