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Title: Near-equilibrium growth from borophene edges on silver

Abstract

Two-dimensional boron, borophene, was realized in recent experiments but still lacks an adequate growth theory for guiding its controlled synthesis. Combining ab initio calculations and experimental characterization, we study edges and growth kinetics of borophene on Ag(111). In equilibrium, the borophene edges are distinctly reconstructed with exceptionally low energies, in contrast to those of other two-dimensional materials. Away from equilibrium, sequential docking of boron feeding species to the reconstructed edges tends to extend the given lattice out of numerous polymorphic structures. Furthermore, each edge can grow via multiple energy pathways of atomic row assembly due to variable boron-boron coordination. These pathways reveal different degrees of anisotropic growth kinetics, shaping borophene into diverse elongated hexagonal islands in agreement with experimental observations in terms of morphology as well as edge orientation and periodicity. These results further suggest that ultrathin borophene ribbons can be grown at low temperature and low boron chemical potential.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Key Laboratory for Intelligent Nano Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, and Institute of Nano Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China; ; Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). 7. 2Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering and Department of Chemistry
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; ; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  3. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Applied Physics Graduate Program
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
  5. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Physics Graduate Program, Dept. of Chemistry
  6. Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). 2. 2Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering and Department of Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures; US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); National Science Foundation (NSF) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center
OSTI Identifier:
1626019
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; SC0012547; 11772153; MCMS-0417G01; NE2018002; ONR N00014-17-1-2993; NSF DMR-1720139
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Science & Technology - Other Topics

Citation Formats

Zhang, Zhuhua, Mannix, Andrew J., Liu, Xiaolong, Hu, Zhili, Guisinger, Nathan P., Hersam, Mark C., and Yakobson, Boris I. Near-equilibrium growth from borophene edges on silver. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax0246.
Zhang, Zhuhua, Mannix, Andrew J., Liu, Xiaolong, Hu, Zhili, Guisinger, Nathan P., Hersam, Mark C., & Yakobson, Boris I. Near-equilibrium growth from borophene edges on silver. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax0246.
Zhang, Zhuhua, Mannix, Andrew J., Liu, Xiaolong, Hu, Zhili, Guisinger, Nathan P., Hersam, Mark C., and Yakobson, Boris I. Sun . "Near-equilibrium growth from borophene edges on silver". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax0246. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1626019.
@article{osti_1626019,
title = {Near-equilibrium growth from borophene edges on silver},
author = {Zhang, Zhuhua and Mannix, Andrew J. and Liu, Xiaolong and Hu, Zhili and Guisinger, Nathan P. and Hersam, Mark C. and Yakobson, Boris I.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional boron, borophene, was realized in recent experiments but still lacks an adequate growth theory for guiding its controlled synthesis. Combining ab initio calculations and experimental characterization, we study edges and growth kinetics of borophene on Ag(111). In equilibrium, the borophene edges are distinctly reconstructed with exceptionally low energies, in contrast to those of other two-dimensional materials. Away from equilibrium, sequential docking of boron feeding species to the reconstructed edges tends to extend the given lattice out of numerous polymorphic structures. Furthermore, each edge can grow via multiple energy pathways of atomic row assembly due to variable boron-boron coordination. These pathways reveal different degrees of anisotropic growth kinetics, shaping borophene into diverse elongated hexagonal islands in agreement with experimental observations in terms of morphology as well as edge orientation and periodicity. These results further suggest that ultrathin borophene ribbons can be grown at low temperature and low boron chemical potential.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aax0246},
journal = {Science Advances},
issn = {2375-2548},
number = 9,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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