skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Measurement and microscopic description of odd–even staggering of charge radii of exotic copper isotopes

Abstract

Nuclear charge radii globally scale with atomic mass number A as A 1/3, and isotopes with an odd number of neutrons are usually slightly smaller in size than their even-neutron neighbours. This odd–even staggering, ubiquitous throughout the nuclear landscape1, varies with the number of protons and neutrons, and poses a substantial challenge for nuclear theory. Here, we report measurements of the charge radii of short-lived copper isotopes up to the very exotic 78Cu (with proton number Z = 29 and neutron number N = 49), produced at only 20 ions s –1, using the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy method at the Isotope Mass Separator On-Line Device facility (ISOLDE) at CERN. We observe an unexpected reduction in the odd–even staggering for isotopes approaching the N = 50 shell gap. To describe the data, we applied models based on nuclear density functional theory and A-body valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group theory. Through these comparisons, we demonstrate a relation between the global behaviour of charge radii and the saturation density of nuclear matter, and show that the local charge radii variations, which reflect the many-body polarization effects, naturally emerge from A-body calculations fitted to properties of A ≤ 4 nuclei.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [2];  [6];  [7];  [1]; ORCiD logo [8];  [3];  [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [13]; ORCiD logo [14] more »;  [15];  [16];  [17]; ORCiD logo [14];  [3]; ORCiD logo [18] « less
  1. Katholieke Univ. (KU), Leuven (Belgium); Univ. of Jyvaskyla (Finland)
  2. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
  3. Katholieke Univ. (KU), Leuven (Belgium)
  4. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  5. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina (Russia)
  6. Inst. of Nuclear Physics (IPN), Orsay (France)
  7. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  8. TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  9. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  10. TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  11. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  12. Katholieke Univ. (KU), Leuven (Belgium); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  13. Univ. Erlangen (Germany)
  14. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  15. New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States)
  16. Katholieke Univ. (KU), Leuven (Belgium); Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
  17. Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany)
  18. Katholieke Univ. (KU), Leuven (Belgium); Peking Univ., Beijing (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); FNPMLS ERC Consolidator; Science and Technology Facilities Council; National Research Council of Canada
OSTI Identifier:
1615730
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0013365; SC0008511; SC)0018083; 648381; ST/P004423/1; ST/L005794/1
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; experimental nuclear physics; theoretical nuclear physics

Citation Formats

de Groote, R. P., Billowes, J., Binnersley, C. L., Bissell, M. L., Cocolios, T. E., Day Goodacre, T., Farooq-Smith, G. J., Fedorov, D. V., Flanagan, K. T., Franchoo, S., Garcia Ruiz, R. F., Gins, W., Holt, J. D., Koszorús, Á., Lynch, K. M., Miyagi, T., Nazarewicz, W., Neyens, G., Reinhard, P. -G., Rothe, S., Stroke, H. H., Vernon, A. R., Wendt, K. D. A., Wilkins, S. G., Xu, Z. Y., and Yang, X. F. Measurement and microscopic description of odd–even staggering of charge radii of exotic copper isotopes. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-020-0868-y.
de Groote, R. P., Billowes, J., Binnersley, C. L., Bissell, M. L., Cocolios, T. E., Day Goodacre, T., Farooq-Smith, G. J., Fedorov, D. V., Flanagan, K. T., Franchoo, S., Garcia Ruiz, R. F., Gins, W., Holt, J. D., Koszorús, Á., Lynch, K. M., Miyagi, T., Nazarewicz, W., Neyens, G., Reinhard, P. -G., Rothe, S., Stroke, H. H., Vernon, A. R., Wendt, K. D. A., Wilkins, S. G., Xu, Z. Y., & Yang, X. F. Measurement and microscopic description of odd–even staggering of charge radii of exotic copper isotopes. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-020-0868-y.
de Groote, R. P., Billowes, J., Binnersley, C. L., Bissell, M. L., Cocolios, T. E., Day Goodacre, T., Farooq-Smith, G. J., Fedorov, D. V., Flanagan, K. T., Franchoo, S., Garcia Ruiz, R. F., Gins, W., Holt, J. D., Koszorús, Á., Lynch, K. M., Miyagi, T., Nazarewicz, W., Neyens, G., Reinhard, P. -G., Rothe, S., Stroke, H. H., Vernon, A. R., Wendt, K. D. A., Wilkins, S. G., Xu, Z. Y., and Yang, X. F. Mon . "Measurement and microscopic description of odd–even staggering of charge radii of exotic copper isotopes". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-020-0868-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1615730.
@article{osti_1615730,
title = {Measurement and microscopic description of odd–even staggering of charge radii of exotic copper isotopes},
author = {de Groote, R. P. and Billowes, J. and Binnersley, C. L. and Bissell, M. L. and Cocolios, T. E. and Day Goodacre, T. and Farooq-Smith, G. J. and Fedorov, D. V. and Flanagan, K. T. and Franchoo, S. and Garcia Ruiz, R. F. and Gins, W. and Holt, J. D. and Koszorús, Á. and Lynch, K. M. and Miyagi, T. and Nazarewicz, W. and Neyens, G. and Reinhard, P. -G. and Rothe, S. and Stroke, H. H. and Vernon, A. R. and Wendt, K. D. A. and Wilkins, S. G. and Xu, Z. Y. and Yang, X. F.},
abstractNote = {Nuclear charge radii globally scale with atomic mass number A as A1/3, and isotopes with an odd number of neutrons are usually slightly smaller in size than their even-neutron neighbours. This odd–even staggering, ubiquitous throughout the nuclear landscape1, varies with the number of protons and neutrons, and poses a substantial challenge for nuclear theory. Here, we report measurements of the charge radii of short-lived copper isotopes up to the very exotic 78Cu (with proton number Z = 29 and neutron number N = 49), produced at only 20 ions s–1, using the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy method at the Isotope Mass Separator On-Line Device facility (ISOLDE) at CERN. We observe an unexpected reduction in the odd–even staggering for isotopes approaching the N = 50 shell gap. To describe the data, we applied models based on nuclear density functional theory and A-body valence-space in-medium similarity renormalization group theory. Through these comparisons, we demonstrate a relation between the global behaviour of charge radii and the saturation density of nuclear matter, and show that the local charge radii variations, which reflect the many-body polarization effects, naturally emerge from A-body calculations fitted to properties of A ≤ 4 nuclei.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-020-0868-y},
journal = {Nature Physics},
issn = {1745-2473},
number = ,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Characterization of the shape-staggering effect in mercury nuclei
journal, October 2018


From Calcium to Cadmium: Testing the Pairing Functional through Charge Radii Measurements of Cd 100 130
journal, September 2018


Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces
journal, June 2011


Chiral three-nucleon forces and pairing in nuclei
journal, December 2011


The Shell-Model Code NuShellX@MSU
journal, June 2014


Towards a universal nuclear density functional
journal, August 1998

  • Fayans, S. A.
  • Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters, Vol. 68, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1134/1.567841

Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus
journal, November 2015

  • Hagen, G.; Ekström, A.; Forssén, C.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3529

Self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems and radii of nuclei
journal, September 2011


Effective interaction and the staggering of nuclear charge radii
journal, February 1987


Binding Energy of Cu 79 : Probing the Structure of the Doubly Magic Ni 78 from Only One Proton Away
journal, November 2017


Towards a better parametrization of the nuclear pairing force: density dependence with gradient term
journal, August 1996


Modern theory of nuclear forces
journal, December 2009


Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach
journal, May 2016


Nonempirical Interactions for the Nuclear Shell Model: An Update
journal, October 2019


Improved nuclear matter calculations from chiral low-momentum interactions
journal, March 2011


Nuclear Spins and Magnetic Moments of Cu 71 , 73 , 75 : Inversion of π 2 p 3 / 2 and π 1 f 5 / 2 Levels in Cu 75
journal, October 2009


The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references
journal, March 2017


Cu charge radii reveal a weak sub-shell effect at N = 40
journal, June 2016


Proton superfluidity and charge radii in proton-rich calcium isotopes
journal, February 2019


In-medium similarity renormalization group for open-shell nuclei
journal, June 2012


Variations on a theme by Skyrme: A systematic study of adjustments of model parameters
journal, March 2009


Toward a global description of nuclear charge radii: Exploring the Fayans energy density functional
journal, June 2017


Nuclear isotope shifts within the local energy-density functional approach
journal, August 2000


Testing microscopically derived descriptions of nuclear collectivity: Coulomb excitation of 22 Mg
journal, July 2018


Analysis of counting data: Development of the SATLAS Python package
journal, January 2018


Magnus expansion and in-medium similarity renormalization group
journal, September 2015


Efficient, high-resolution resonance laser ionization spectroscopy using weak transitions to long-lived excited states
journal, March 2017


Table of experimental nuclear ground state charge radii: An update
journal, January 2013


78Ni revealed as a doubly magic stronghold against nuclear deformation
journal, May 2019


Nuclear charge radii of 62−80Zn and their dependence on cross-shell proton excitations
journal, October 2019


Dipole and quadrupole moments of Cu 73 78 as a test of the robustness of the Z = 28 shell closure near Ni 78
journal, October 2017


The role of three-nucleon forces and many-body processes in nuclear pairing
journal, June 2013

  • Holt, J. D.; Menéndez, J.; Schwenk, A.
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 40, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/40/7/075105

Nucleus-Dependent Valence-Space Approach to Nuclear Structure
journal, January 2017