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Title: H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723

Abstract

Galaxies and galaxy groups located along the line of sight towards gravitationally lensed quasars produce high-order perturbations of the gravitational potential at the lens position. When these perturbation are too large, they can induce a systematic error on H 0 of a few percent if the lens system is used for cosmological inference and the perturbers are not explicitly accounted for in the lens model. In this work, we present a detailed characterization of the environment of the lens system WFI 2033-4723 ($$z_{\rm src} =\,$$1.662, $$z_{\rm lens}=\,$$0.6575), one of the core targets of the H0LiCOW project for which we present cosmological inferences in a companion paper. We use the Gemini and ESO-Very Large telescopes to measure the spectroscopic redshifts of the brightest galaxies towards the lens, and use the ESO-MUSE integral field spectrograph to measure the velocity-dispersion of the lens ($$\sigma _{\rm {los}}= 250^{+15}_{-21}$$ km s -1) and of several nearby galaxies. In addition, we measure photometric redshifts and stellar masses of all galaxies down to i < 23 mag, mainly based on Dark Energy Survey imaging (DR1). Our new catalogue, complemented with literature data, more than doubles the number of known galaxy spectroscopic redshifts in the direct vicinity of the lens, expanding to 116 (64) the number of spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies separated by less than 3 arcmin (2 arcmin) from the lens. Using the flexion-shift as a measure of the amplitude of the gravitational perturbation, we identify two galaxy groups and three galaxies that require specific attention in the lens models. The ESO MUSE data enable us to measure the velocity-dispersions of three of these galaxies. These results are essential for the cosmological inference analysis presented in Rusu et al.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [7];  [10];  [11]; ORCiD logo [12];  [11];  [13];  [14];  [11];  [15];  [11] more »;  [10];  [16]; ORCiD logo [17];  [18];  [19];  [16];  [20]; ORCiD logo [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [27];  [19]; ORCiD logo [28];  [29];  [30];  [17];  [28];  [31];  [22];  [25];  [32];  [33];  [34];  [35];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [16];  [39];  [40];  [25];  [41]; ORCiD logo [40];  [22];  [42]; ORCiD logo [40];  [26];  [24];  [26];  [43]; ORCiD logo [44];  [45]; ORCiD logo [46];  [47];  [48] « less
  1. STAR Institute, Quartier Agora – Allée du six Août, 19c B-4000 Liège, Belgium
  2. Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720, USA, Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
  3. Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
  4. Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, the Netherlands
  5. CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, F-69230 Saint-Genis-Laval, France
  6. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  7. European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
  8. Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
  9. Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
  10. Department of Physics and Astronomy, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
  11. Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland
  12. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Rd, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  13. Exzellenzcluster Universe, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
  14. Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, the Netherlands
  15. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  16. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  17. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  18. CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France
  19. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  20. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  21. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain, Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  22. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  23. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  24. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), E-08034 Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
  25. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  26. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain
  27. Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana 502285, India
  28. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  29. Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
  30. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  31. California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  32. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
  33. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  34. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  35. Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  36. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  37. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA
  38. Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
  39. Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  40. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  41. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  42. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
  43. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  44. Brandeis University, Physics Department, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  45. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP, Brazil
  46. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  47. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  48. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1606623
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1556959; OSTI ID: 1606727; OSTI ID: 1619111; OSTI ID: 1681197
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1905.08800; FERMILAB-PUB-19-168-AE; DES-2019-0432; arXiv:1905.08800v2
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; AC02-05CH11231; AST-1450141; AST-1312329; HSTGO-15320; AC05-00OR22725; AST-1138766; AST-1536171; NAS 5-26555; SC0019193
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 490 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational lensing: strong; galaxies: groups: general; quasars: individual: WFI 2033−4723

Citation Formats

Sluse, D., Rusu, C. E., Fassnacht, C. D., Sonnenfeld, A., Richard, J., Auger, M. W., Coccato, L., Wong, K. C., Suyu, S. H., Treu, T., Agnello, A., Birrer, S., Bonvin, V., Collett, T., Courbin, F., Hilbert, S., Koopmans, L. V. E., Tihhanova, O., Marshall, P. J., Meylan, G., Shajib, A. J., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Evrard, A. E., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., and Tarle, G. H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2483.
Sluse, D., Rusu, C. E., Fassnacht, C. D., Sonnenfeld, A., Richard, J., Auger, M. W., Coccato, L., Wong, K. C., Suyu, S. H., Treu, T., Agnello, A., Birrer, S., Bonvin, V., Collett, T., Courbin, F., Hilbert, S., Koopmans, L. V. E., Tihhanova, O., Marshall, P. J., Meylan, G., Shajib, A. J., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Evrard, A. E., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., & Tarle, G. H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2483.
Sluse, D., Rusu, C. E., Fassnacht, C. D., Sonnenfeld, A., Richard, J., Auger, M. W., Coccato, L., Wong, K. C., Suyu, S. H., Treu, T., Agnello, A., Birrer, S., Bonvin, V., Collett, T., Courbin, F., Hilbert, S., Koopmans, L. V. E., Tihhanova, O., Marshall, P. J., Meylan, G., Shajib, A. J., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Evrard, A. E., Flaugher, B., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kim, A. G., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., and Tarle, G. Thu . "H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2483.
@article{osti_1606623,
title = {H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723},
author = {Sluse, D. and Rusu, C. E. and Fassnacht, C. D. and Sonnenfeld, A. and Richard, J. and Auger, M. W. and Coccato, L. and Wong, K. C. and Suyu, S. H. and Treu, T. and Agnello, A. and Birrer, S. and Bonvin, V. and Collett, T. and Courbin, F. and Hilbert, S. and Koopmans, L. V. E. and Tihhanova, O. and Marshall, P. J. and Meylan, G. and Shajib, A. J. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and da Costa, L. N. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Doel, P. and Evrard, A. E. and Flaugher, B. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gerdes, D. W. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Kim, A. G. and Krause, E. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lima, M. and Lin, H. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Sanchez, E. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G.},
abstractNote = {Galaxies and galaxy groups located along the line of sight towards gravitationally lensed quasars produce high-order perturbations of the gravitational potential at the lens position. When these perturbation are too large, they can induce a systematic error on H0 of a few percent if the lens system is used for cosmological inference and the perturbers are not explicitly accounted for in the lens model. In this work, we present a detailed characterization of the environment of the lens system WFI 2033-4723 ($z_{\rm src} =\,$1.662, $z_{\rm lens}=\,$0.6575), one of the core targets of the H0LiCOW project for which we present cosmological inferences in a companion paper. We use the Gemini and ESO-Very Large telescopes to measure the spectroscopic redshifts of the brightest galaxies towards the lens, and use the ESO-MUSE integral field spectrograph to measure the velocity-dispersion of the lens ($\sigma _{\rm {los}}= 250^{+15}_{-21}$ km s-1) and of several nearby galaxies. In addition, we measure photometric redshifts and stellar masses of all galaxies down to i < 23 mag, mainly based on Dark Energy Survey imaging (DR1). Our new catalogue, complemented with literature data, more than doubles the number of known galaxy spectroscopic redshifts in the direct vicinity of the lens, expanding to 116 (64) the number of spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies separated by less than 3 arcmin (2 arcmin) from the lens. Using the flexion-shift as a measure of the amplitude of the gravitational perturbation, we identify two galaxy groups and three galaxies that require specific attention in the lens models. The ESO MUSE data enable us to measure the velocity-dispersions of three of these galaxies. These results are essential for the cosmological inference analysis presented in Rusu et al.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2483},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
issn = {0035-8711},
number = 1,
volume = 490,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1093/mnras/stz2483

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A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses: the Group Catalog
journal, December 2016

  • Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 833, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/194

Bayesian Photometric Redshift Estimation
journal, June 2000

  • Benitez, Narciso
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 536, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/308947

The Internal Structure and Formation of Early‐Type Galaxies: The Gravitational Lens System MG 2016+112 at z = 1.004
journal, August 2002

  • Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 575, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/341216

Galactic Stellar and Substellar Initial Mass Function
journal, July 2003

  • Chabrier, Gilles
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 809
  • DOI: 10.1086/376392

The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
journal, February 2006

  • Skrutskie, M. F.; Cutri, R. M.; Stiening, R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498708

Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar
journal, October 2015


T-PHOT: A new code for PSF-matched, prior-based, multiwavelength extragalactic deconfusion photometry
journal, September 2015


THE SCALING OF STELLAR MASS AND CENTRAL STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION FOR QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z < 0.7
journal, December 2016

  • Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 832, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/832/2/203

WFI J2026-4536 and WFI J2033-4723: Two New Quadruple Gravitational Lenses
journal, May 2004

  • Morgan, Nicholas D.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Schechter, Paul L.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 127, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1086/383295

Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): the GAMA galaxy group catalogue (G3Cv1): GAMA: the GAMA galaxy group catalogue (G3Cv1)
journal, July 2011


Ultradeep Near-Infrared ISAAC Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South: Observations, Reduction, Multicolor Catalog, and Photometric Redshifts
journal, March 2003

  • Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Rudnick, Gregory
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 125, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/346140

COSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses: VII. Time delays and the Hubble constant from WFI J2033–4723
journal, July 2008


Microlensing of the broad line region in 17 lensed quasars
journal, July 2012


Design and capabilities of the MUSE data reduction software and pipeline
conference, September 2012

  • Weilbacher, Peter M.; Streicher, Ole; Urrutia, Tanya
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.925114

The internal structure of the lens PG1115+080: breaking degeneracies in the value of the Hubble constant
journal, September 2002


Measuring the redshift evolution of clustering: the Hubble Deep Field South
journal, January 2002


Evidence for dark Matter Contraction and a Salpeter Initial mass Function in a Massive Early-Type Galaxy
journal, June 2012


Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
journal, October 2003


Reconstructing the lensing mass in the Universe from photometric catalogue data
journal, April 2013

  • Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt504

The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Deep Near-Infrared Imaging and the Selection of Distant Galaxies
journal, July 2007

  • Quadri, Ryan; Marchesini, Danilo; van Dokkum, Pieter
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 134, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/520330

Dynamical analysis of strong-lensing galaxy groups at intermediate redshift
journal, March 2013


H0LiCOW – II. Spectroscopic survey and galaxy-group identification of the strong gravitational lens system HE 0435−1223
journal, June 2017

  • Sluse, D.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Rumbaugh, N.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1484

Galaxy groups at 0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.55 - I. Group properties
journal, March 2005


HAWK-I: the high-acuity wide-field K -band imager for the ESO Very Large Telescope
journal, October 2008


EAZY: A Fast, Public Photometric Redshift Code
journal, October 2008

  • Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Coppi, Paolo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/591786

COSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses
journal, July 2004

  • Courbin, F.; Eigenbrod, A.; Vuissoz, C.
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Vol. 2004, Issue IAUS225
  • DOI: 10.1017/s1743921305002097