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Title: Boron–oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond

Abstract

Diamond is a wide-bandgap semiconductor possessing exceptional physical and chemical properties with the potential to miniaturize high-power electronics. Whereas boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a well-known p-type semiconductor, fabrication of practical diamond-based electronic devices awaits development of an effective n-type dopant with satisfactory electrical properties. Here we report the synthesis of n-type diamond, containing boron (B) and oxygen (O) complex defects. We obtain high carrier concentration (~0.778 × 10 21cm -3) several orders of magnitude greater than previously obtained with sulfur or phosphorous, accompanied by high electrical conductivity. In high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) boron-doped diamond single crystal we formed a boron-rich layer ~1–1.5 μm thick in the {111} surface containing up to 1.4 atomic % B. We show that under certain HPHT conditions the boron dopants combine with oxygen defects to form B–O complexes that can be tuned by controlling the experimental parameters for diamond crystallization, thus giving rise to n-type conduction. First-principles calculations indicate that B 3O and B 4O complexes with low formation energies exhibit shallow donor levels, elucidating the mechanism of the n-type semiconducting behavior.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Qufu Normal Univ., Shandong (China); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
  4. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  5. Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1599893
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003858; SC0019114; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 16; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; diamond; boron; defects; semiconductor; high pressure

Citation Formats

Liu, Xiaobing, Chen, Xin, Singh, David J., Stern, Richard A., Wu, Jinsong, Petitgirard, Sylvain, Bina, Craig R., and Jacobsen, Steven D. Boron–oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821612116.
Liu, Xiaobing, Chen, Xin, Singh, David J., Stern, Richard A., Wu, Jinsong, Petitgirard, Sylvain, Bina, Craig R., & Jacobsen, Steven D. Boron–oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond. United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821612116
Liu, Xiaobing, Chen, Xin, Singh, David J., Stern, Richard A., Wu, Jinsong, Petitgirard, Sylvain, Bina, Craig R., and Jacobsen, Steven D. Mon . "Boron–oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond". United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821612116. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1599893.
@article{osti_1599893,
title = {Boron–oxygen complex yields n-type surface layer in semiconducting diamond},
author = {Liu, Xiaobing and Chen, Xin and Singh, David J. and Stern, Richard A. and Wu, Jinsong and Petitgirard, Sylvain and Bina, Craig R. and Jacobsen, Steven D.},
abstractNote = {Diamond is a wide-bandgap semiconductor possessing exceptional physical and chemical properties with the potential to miniaturize high-power electronics. Whereas boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a well-known p-type semiconductor, fabrication of practical diamond-based electronic devices awaits development of an effective n-type dopant with satisfactory electrical properties. Here we report the synthesis of n-type diamond, containing boron (B) and oxygen (O) complex defects. We obtain high carrier concentration (~0.778 × 1021cm-3) several orders of magnitude greater than previously obtained with sulfur or phosphorous, accompanied by high electrical conductivity. In high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) boron-doped diamond single crystal we formed a boron-rich layer ~1–1.5 μm thick in the {111} surface containing up to 1.4 atomic % B. We show that under certain HPHT conditions the boron dopants combine with oxygen defects to form B–O complexes that can be tuned by controlling the experimental parameters for diamond crystallization, thus giving rise to n-type conduction. First-principles calculations indicate that B3O and B4O complexes with low formation energies exhibit shallow donor levels, elucidating the mechanism of the n-type semiconducting behavior.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1821612116},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1599893}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
issn = {0027-8424},
number = 16,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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Cited by: 9 works
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