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Title: Utilizing TiO2 Amorphous Precursors for Polymorph Selection: An in situ TEM study of Phase Formation and Kinetics

Abstract

Selective synthesis of metastable polymorphs requires a fundamental understanding of the complex energy landscapes in which these phases form. Recently, the development of in situ high temperature and controlled atmosphere transmission electron microscopy has enabled the direct observation of nucleation, growth, and phase transformations with near atomic resolution. In this work, we directly observe the crystallization behavior of amorphous TiO2 thin films grown under different pulsed laser deposition conditions and quantify the mechanisms behind metastable crystalline polymorph stabilization. Films deposited at 10 mTorr chamber oxygen pressure crystallize into nanocrystalline Anatase at 325 degrees C, whereas films deposited at 2 mTorr crystallize into significantly larger needle-like grains of Brookite and Anatase at 270 degrees C. Increasing film deposition rate by a factor of 4 results in a 10x increase in the crystalline growth front velocity as well as a decrease in crystallization temperature from 270 degrees C to 225 degrees C. Engineering the amorphous precursor state through deposition conditions therefore provides routes to microstructure control and the accessibility of higher energy metastable phases.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]
  1. Colorado School of Mines
  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1598127
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5F00-75989
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; amorphous; crystals/crystallization; thin films; titanium dioxide

Citation Formats

Mangum, John S., Garten, Lauren M, Ginley, David S, and Gorman, Brian P. Utilizing TiO2 Amorphous Precursors for Polymorph Selection: An in situ TEM study of Phase Formation and Kinetics. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1111/jace.16965.
Mangum, John S., Garten, Lauren M, Ginley, David S, & Gorman, Brian P. Utilizing TiO2 Amorphous Precursors for Polymorph Selection: An in situ TEM study of Phase Formation and Kinetics. United States. doi:10.1111/jace.16965.
Mangum, John S., Garten, Lauren M, Ginley, David S, and Gorman, Brian P. Fri . "Utilizing TiO2 Amorphous Precursors for Polymorph Selection: An in situ TEM study of Phase Formation and Kinetics". United States. doi:10.1111/jace.16965.
@article{osti_1598127,
title = {Utilizing TiO2 Amorphous Precursors for Polymorph Selection: An in situ TEM study of Phase Formation and Kinetics},
author = {Mangum, John S. and Garten, Lauren M and Ginley, David S and Gorman, Brian P.},
abstractNote = {Selective synthesis of metastable polymorphs requires a fundamental understanding of the complex energy landscapes in which these phases form. Recently, the development of in situ high temperature and controlled atmosphere transmission electron microscopy has enabled the direct observation of nucleation, growth, and phase transformations with near atomic resolution. In this work, we directly observe the crystallization behavior of amorphous TiO2 thin films grown under different pulsed laser deposition conditions and quantify the mechanisms behind metastable crystalline polymorph stabilization. Films deposited at 10 mTorr chamber oxygen pressure crystallize into nanocrystalline Anatase at 325 degrees C, whereas films deposited at 2 mTorr crystallize into significantly larger needle-like grains of Brookite and Anatase at 270 degrees C. Increasing film deposition rate by a factor of 4 results in a 10x increase in the crystalline growth front velocity as well as a decrease in crystallization temperature from 270 degrees C to 225 degrees C. Engineering the amorphous precursor state through deposition conditions therefore provides routes to microstructure control and the accessibility of higher energy metastable phases.},
doi = {10.1111/jace.16965},
journal = {Journal of the American Ceramic Society},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {12}
}

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S.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 505</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2018.10.049" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2018.10.049<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03185527" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">The Johnson-Mehl- Avrami-Kohnogorov model: A brief review<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1998-07-01">July 1998</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Fanfoni, M.; Tomellini, M.</span> </li> <li> Il Nuovo Cimento D, Vol. 20, Issue 7-8</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03185527" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/BF03185527<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750380" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Kinetics of Phase Change. I General Theory<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1939-12-01">December 1939</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Avrami, Melvin</span> </li> <li> The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 12, p. 1103-1112</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750380" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.1750380<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1750631" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Kinetics of Phase Change. 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M.; Voorhees, P. W.</span> </li> <li> Scripta Materialia, Vol. 124</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.07.010" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.07.010<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2002.0077" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Nitrogen Effects on Crystallization Kinetics of Amorphous TiO <sub> <em>x</em> </sub> N <sub> <em>y</em> </sub> Thin Films<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2002-03-01">March 2002</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Hukari, Kyle; Dannenberg, Rand; Stach, E. A.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 17, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2002.0077" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1557/JMR.2002.0077<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (38)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <label for="reference-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="reference-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-name"><label for="reference-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-date"><label for="reference-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1485571-selective-brookite-polymorph-formation-related-amorphous-precursor-state-tio2-thin-films" itemprop="url">Selective Brookite Polymorph Formation Related to the Amorphous Precursor State in TiO <sub>2</sub> Thin Films</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Mangum, John S.</span> ; <span class="author">Agirseven, Okan</span> ; <span class="author">Haggerty, James E. S.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">A wide variety of brookite TiO <sub>2</sub> synthesis methods have been published over the past several decades, but few studies discuss the underlying mechanism that stabilizes brookite over its stable counterparts, rutile and anatase. Here in this study, we investigate of the effect of pulsed laser deposition parameters on the as-deposited amorphous precursor titania thin films, which subsequently crystallize into stable and metastable TiO <sub>2</sub> polymorphs upon annealing. We find that oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber strongly influences the non-equilibrium state of the amorphous precursor, which ultimately allows for selective polymorph formation. Rutile forms as the dominant phase at<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> low pO <sub>2</sub> < 0.1 mTorr, while anatase is favored at high pO <sub>2</sub> > 5 mTorr. Brookite forms primarily at intermediate pO <sub>2</sub> (0.5-1.0 mTorr). Controlling the amorphous structure (i.e. Ti - O bonding and polyhedral arrangement) of the precursors via oxygen deficiency is therefore likely for the selective formation of crystalline TiO <sub>2</sub> polymorphs from sub-stoichiometric amorphous precursors. Lastly, directing phase selectivity by manipulating the structure and internal energy of the precursor amorphous state may have tremendous potential for synthesis of metastable crystalline phases that exhibit more desirable properties in comparison to their stable counterparts.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2018.10.049" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1485571" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2018.10.049</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1485571" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1485571" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1257063-computational-approach-epitaxial-polymorph-stabilization-through-substrate-selection" itemprop="url">Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Ding, Hong</span> ; <span class="author">Dwaraknath, Shyam S.</span> ; <span class="author">Garten, Lauren</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. We find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO2 substrates, where the VO2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO2 brookite plane while the columbite and anatase structures<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. These criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b01630" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1257063" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1021/acsami.6b01630</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1379356-computational-approach-epitaxial-polymorph-stabilization-through-substrate-selection" itemprop="url">Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Ding, Hong</span> ; <span class="author">Dwaraknath, Shyam S.</span> ; <span class="author">Garten, Lauren</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO <sub>2</sub> compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. Here, we find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO <sub>2</sub> substrates, where the VO <sub>2</sub> brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO <sub>2</sub> brookite plane while<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO <sub>2</sub> phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO <sub>2</sub> polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. Our criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 12<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b01630" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1379356" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1021/acsami.6b01630</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1379356" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1379356" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1409492-high-fraction-brookite-films-from-amorphous-precursors" itemprop="url">High-fraction brookite films from amorphous precursors</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Haggerty, James E. S.</span> ; <span class="author">Schelhas, Laura T.</span> ; <span class="author">Kitchaev, Daniil A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Scientific Reports</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Structure-specific synthesis processes are of key importance to the growth of polymorphic functional compounds such as TiO <sub>2</sub>, where material properties strongly depend on structure as well as chemistry. The robust growth of the brookite polymorph of TiO <sub>2</sub>, a promising photocatalyst, has been difficult in both powder and thin-film forms due to the disparity of reported synthesis techniques, their highly specific nature, and lack of mechanistic understanding. In this work, we report the growth of high-fraction (~95%) brookite thin films prepared by annealing amorphous titania precursor films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. We characterize the crystallization process, eliminating the<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> previously suggested roles of substrate templating and Na helper ions in driving brookite formation. Instead, we link phase selection directly to film thickness, offering a novel, generalizable route to brookite growth that does not rely on the presence of extraneous elements or particular lattice-matched substrates. In addition to providing a new synthesis route to brookite thin films, our results take a step towards resolving the problem of phase selection in TiO <sub>2</sub> growth, contributing to the further development of this promising functional material.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15364-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1409492" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1038/s41598-017-15364-y</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1409492" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1409492" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1410515-high-fraction-brookite-films-from-amorphous-precursors" itemprop="url">High-fraction brookite films from amorphous precursors</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Haggerty, James E. S.</span> ; <span class="author">Schelhas, Laura T.</span> ; <span class="author">Kitchaev, Daniil A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Scientific Reports</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Structure-specific synthesis processes are of key importance to the growth of polymorphic functional compounds such as TiO <sub>2</sub>, where material properties strongly depend on structure as well as chemistry. The robust growth of the brookite polymorph of TiO <sub>2</sub>, a promising photocatalyst, has been difficult in both powder and thin-film forms due to the disparity of reported synthesis techniques, their highly specific nature, and lack of mechanistic understanding. In this work, we report the growth of high-fraction (~95%) brookite thin films prepared by annealing amorphous titania precursor films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. We characterize the crystallization process, eliminating the<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> previously suggested roles of substrate templating and Na helper ions in driving brookite formation. Instead, we link phase selection directly to film thickness, offering a novel, generalizable route to brookite growth that does not rely on the presence of extraneous elements or particular lattice-matched substrates. In addition to providing a new synthesis route to brookite thin films, our results take a step towards resolving the problem of phase selection in TiO <sub>2</sub> growth, contributing to the further development of this promising functional material.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15364-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1410515" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1038/s41598-017-15364-y</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1410515" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1410515" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="d-none d-sm-inline" style="color:#737373;">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none mb-1"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/css/ostigov.fonts.191107.1502.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/js/ostigov.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/ostigov.biblio.191107.1502.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- OSTI.GOV v.191107.1502 --> </html>