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Title: Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries

Abstract

Sodium (Na)-based battery technologies that are economical (because Na is abundant) and have long cycle life are gaining importance for large-scale energy storage applications. Among the widely studied Na-based battery systems, intermediate-temperature (IT) Na-metal halide (Na-MH) batteries have demonstrated several advantages over conventional high-temperature Na batteries, including superior battery safety, lower operating temperature and manufacturing cost, potentially longer cycle life, and easier assembly, etc. However, the rate performance of IT Na-MH batteries is inevitably affected by lower operating temperatures. In pursuit of faster charge-transfer reaction kinetics, we extended our studies of cathode materials beyond the extensively investigated NiCl2 to NiBr2 (NaBr/Ni) and NiI2 (NaI/Ni) compounds. We systematically investigated the synergetic effects of anion chemistry on the electrochemical properties. Surprisingly, among three tested cathodes, the NaBr/Ni cathode showed the highest energy density of 174 Wh/kg at 33.3 mA/cm2 (~0.8C), which is 2.5 and 1.9 times higher than those of NaCl/Ni and NaI/Ni cells. We explored the underlying enhancement mechanism in great detail via multiple structural characterization and electrochemical techniques. The sodium-halide salt dissolution in molten NaAlCl4 was found to be the determining factor in rate improvement. Our findings will greatly advance IT Na-MH battery technologies and pave the way towards fundamentalmore » understanding of reaction kinetics for high-temperature batteries in general.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  2. Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1595295
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-143535
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Energy Storage Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Zhan, Xiaowen, Sepulveda, Jonathan P., Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Lemmon, Teresa L., Jung, Keeyoung, Reed, David M., Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2019.08.021.
Zhan, Xiaowen, Sepulveda, Jonathan P., Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Lemmon, Teresa L., Jung, Keeyoung, Reed, David M., Sprenkle, Vincent L., & Li, Guosheng. Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2019.08.021.
Zhan, Xiaowen, Sepulveda, Jonathan P., Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Lemmon, Teresa L., Jung, Keeyoung, Reed, David M., Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Wed . "Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2019.08.021.
@article{osti_1595295,
title = {Elucidating the role of anionic chemistry towards high-rate intermediate-temperature Na-metal halide batteries},
author = {Zhan, Xiaowen and Sepulveda, Jonathan P. and Lu, Xiaochuan and Bonnett, Jeff F. and Canfield, Nathan L. and Lemmon, Teresa L. and Jung, Keeyoung and Reed, David M. and Sprenkle, Vincent L. and Li, Guosheng},
abstractNote = {Sodium (Na)-based battery technologies that are economical (because Na is abundant) and have long cycle life are gaining importance for large-scale energy storage applications. Among the widely studied Na-based battery systems, intermediate-temperature (IT) Na-metal halide (Na-MH) batteries have demonstrated several advantages over conventional high-temperature Na batteries, including superior battery safety, lower operating temperature and manufacturing cost, potentially longer cycle life, and easier assembly, etc. However, the rate performance of IT Na-MH batteries is inevitably affected by lower operating temperatures. In pursuit of faster charge-transfer reaction kinetics, we extended our studies of cathode materials beyond the extensively investigated NiCl2 to NiBr2 (NaBr/Ni) and NiI2 (NaI/Ni) compounds. We systematically investigated the synergetic effects of anion chemistry on the electrochemical properties. Surprisingly, among three tested cathodes, the NaBr/Ni cathode showed the highest energy density of 174 Wh/kg at 33.3 mA/cm2 (~0.8C), which is 2.5 and 1.9 times higher than those of NaCl/Ni and NaI/Ni cells. We explored the underlying enhancement mechanism in great detail via multiple structural characterization and electrochemical techniques. The sodium-halide salt dissolution in molten NaAlCl4 was found to be the determining factor in rate improvement. Our findings will greatly advance IT Na-MH battery technologies and pave the way towards fundamental understanding of reaction kinetics for high-temperature batteries in general.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ensm.2019.08.021},
journal = {Energy Storage Materials},
number = ,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}