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Title: Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries

Abstract

Non-flammable electrolytes could intrinsically eliminate fire hazards and improve battery safety, but their compatibility with electrode materials, especially graphite anodes, remains an obstacle owing to the strong catalytic activity of the anode surfaces. Here, we report an approach that improves the stability of non-flammable phosphate electrolytes by adjusting the molar ratio of Li salt to solvent. At a high Li salt-to-solvent molar ratio (~1:2), the phosphate solvent molecules are mostly coordinated with the Li+ cations, and the undesired reactivity of the solvent molecules toward the graphite anode can be effectively suppressed. High cycling Coulombic efficiency (99.7%), good cycle life and safe operation of commercial 18650 Li-ion cells with these electrolytes are demonstrated. In addition, these non-flammable electrolytes show reduced reactivity toward Li-metal electrodes. Non-dendritic Li-metal plating and stripping in Li–Cu half-cells are demonstrated with high Coulombic efficiency (> 99%) and good stability.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Wuhan University
  2. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  3. UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS
  4. Academia
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1591877
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-138577
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Zeng, Ziqi, Murugesan, Vijayakumar, Han, Kee Sung, Jiang, Xiaoyu, Cao, Yuliang, Xiao, Lifen, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, Zhang, Jiguang, Sushko, Maria L., and Liu, Jun. Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0196-y.
Zeng, Ziqi, Murugesan, Vijayakumar, Han, Kee Sung, Jiang, Xiaoyu, Cao, Yuliang, Xiao, Lifen, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, Zhang, Jiguang, Sushko, Maria L., & Liu, Jun. Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries. United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0196-y.
Zeng, Ziqi, Murugesan, Vijayakumar, Han, Kee Sung, Jiang, Xiaoyu, Cao, Yuliang, Xiao, Lifen, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, Zhang, Jiguang, Sushko, Maria L., and Liu, Jun. Mon . "Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries". United States. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0196-y.
@article{osti_1591877,
title = {Non-flammable electrolytes with high salt-to-solvent ratios for Li-ion and Li-metal batteries},
author = {Zeng, Ziqi and Murugesan, Vijayakumar and Han, Kee Sung and Jiang, Xiaoyu and Cao, Yuliang and Xiao, Lifen and Ai, Xinping and Yang, Hanxi and Zhang, Jiguang and Sushko, Maria L. and Liu, Jun},
abstractNote = {Non-flammable electrolytes could intrinsically eliminate fire hazards and improve battery safety, but their compatibility with electrode materials, especially graphite anodes, remains an obstacle owing to the strong catalytic activity of the anode surfaces. Here, we report an approach that improves the stability of non-flammable phosphate electrolytes by adjusting the molar ratio of Li salt to solvent. At a high Li salt-to-solvent molar ratio (~1:2), the phosphate solvent molecules are mostly coordinated with the Li+ cations, and the undesired reactivity of the solvent molecules toward the graphite anode can be effectively suppressed. High cycling Coulombic efficiency (99.7%), good cycle life and safe operation of commercial 18650 Li-ion cells with these electrolytes are demonstrated. In addition, these non-flammable electrolytes show reduced reactivity toward Li-metal electrodes. Non-dendritic Li-metal plating and stripping in Li–Cu half-cells are demonstrated with high Coulombic efficiency (> 99%) and good stability.},
doi = {10.1038/s41560-018-0196-y},
journal = {Nature Energy},
number = 8,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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