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Title: Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control

Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) not only power most of today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV) but also are considered as a very promising system for grid-level storage. Large-scale applications for LIBs require substantial improvement in energy density, cost, and lifetime. Layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC, x+y+z=1) materials from solid-solution approaches to LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co, etc) are the most promising candidates for their high reversible capacity, better environmental compatibility, and lower cost compared with the traditional LiCoO2. In order to further boost Li storage capacity, a great deal of attention has been directed toward developing Ni-rich NMCs. However, structural disorder as a result of Ni/Li exchange in octahedral sites becomes a critical issue when Ni content increases to high values, as it leads to a detrimental effect on Li diffusivity, cycling stability, first-cycle efficiency, and overall electrode performance. Increasing efforts have been dedicated to improving the electrochemical performance of NMC materials via reduction of cationic mixing. Therefore, it is important to summarize this research field and provide in-depth insight into impact of Ni/Li disorder on electrochemical characteristics in layered NMC materials and its origin to accelerate the future development of NMC materials with high performance. In this Account,more » we start by analyzing the impact of Ni/Li disorder on electrochemical characteristics in layered NMC materials. The antisite Ni in the Li layer can limit the rate performance by impeding the Li-ion transport. It will also degrade the cycling stability by inducing the anisotropic stress in the bulk structure. Nevertheless, the antisite Ni-ions don’t always bring drawbacks to the electrochemical performance, some studies including our works found that it can improve the thermal stability and the cycling structure stability of Ni-rich NMC materials. We next discussed the driving forces and the kinetic advantages accounting for the Ni/Li exchange and summarized that the steric effect of cation size and the magnetic interactions between TM cations are the two main driving forces to promote the Ni/Li exchange during synthesis procedure and the electrochemical cycling, and the low energy barrier of Ni2+ migration from the 3a site in TM layer to 3b site in Li layer further provides the kinetic advantage. Based on above understandings, we reviewed the progress made to control the Ni/Li disorder and summarized three main ways: (i) suppressing the driving force from the steric effect by ion exchange; (ii) tuning the magnetic interaction by cationic substitution; (iii) kinetic controlling of Ni migration. Finally, our brief outlooks on the future development of controlling the Ni/Li disorder in NMC materials are provided. It is believed that this Account will provide significant understanding and inspirations toward developing high-performance NMC materials with controlled Ni/Li disorder.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Peking University
  2. Peter Grunberg Institute
  3. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  4. Brookhaven National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1591865
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-140607
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Accounts of Chemical Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Zheng, Jiaxin, Ye, Yaokun, Liu, Tongchao, Xiao, Yinguo, Wang, Chongmin, Wang, Feng, and Pan, Feng. Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033.
Zheng, Jiaxin, Ye, Yaokun, Liu, Tongchao, Xiao, Yinguo, Wang, Chongmin, Wang, Feng, & Pan, Feng. Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033.
Zheng, Jiaxin, Ye, Yaokun, Liu, Tongchao, Xiao, Yinguo, Wang, Chongmin, Wang, Feng, and Pan, Feng. Tue . "Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033.
@article{osti_1591865,
title = {Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control},
author = {Zheng, Jiaxin and Ye, Yaokun and Liu, Tongchao and Xiao, Yinguo and Wang, Chongmin and Wang, Feng and Pan, Feng},
abstractNote = {Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) not only power most of today’s hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV) but also are considered as a very promising system for grid-level storage. Large-scale applications for LIBs require substantial improvement in energy density, cost, and lifetime. Layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC, x+y+z=1) materials from solid-solution approaches to LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co, etc) are the most promising candidates for their high reversible capacity, better environmental compatibility, and lower cost compared with the traditional LiCoO2. In order to further boost Li storage capacity, a great deal of attention has been directed toward developing Ni-rich NMCs. However, structural disorder as a result of Ni/Li exchange in octahedral sites becomes a critical issue when Ni content increases to high values, as it leads to a detrimental effect on Li diffusivity, cycling stability, first-cycle efficiency, and overall electrode performance. Increasing efforts have been dedicated to improving the electrochemical performance of NMC materials via reduction of cationic mixing. Therefore, it is important to summarize this research field and provide in-depth insight into impact of Ni/Li disorder on electrochemical characteristics in layered NMC materials and its origin to accelerate the future development of NMC materials with high performance. In this Account, we start by analyzing the impact of Ni/Li disorder on electrochemical characteristics in layered NMC materials. The antisite Ni in the Li layer can limit the rate performance by impeding the Li-ion transport. It will also degrade the cycling stability by inducing the anisotropic stress in the bulk structure. Nevertheless, the antisite Ni-ions don’t always bring drawbacks to the electrochemical performance, some studies including our works found that it can improve the thermal stability and the cycling structure stability of Ni-rich NMC materials. We next discussed the driving forces and the kinetic advantages accounting for the Ni/Li exchange and summarized that the steric effect of cation size and the magnetic interactions between TM cations are the two main driving forces to promote the Ni/Li exchange during synthesis procedure and the electrochemical cycling, and the low energy barrier of Ni2+ migration from the 3a site in TM layer to 3b site in Li layer further provides the kinetic advantage. Based on above understandings, we reviewed the progress made to control the Ni/Li disorder and summarized three main ways: (i) suppressing the driving force from the steric effect by ion exchange; (ii) tuning the magnetic interaction by cationic substitution; (iii) kinetic controlling of Ni migration. Finally, our brief outlooks on the future development of controlling the Ni/Li disorder in NMC materials are provided. It is believed that this Account will provide significant understanding and inspirations toward developing high-performance NMC materials with controlled Ni/Li disorder.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033},
journal = {Accounts of Chemical Research},
number = 8,
volume = 52,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}