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Title: In-situ characterization of the Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier tubes used in the DEAP-3600 experiment

Abstract

The Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier-tube (PMT) is a novel high-quantum efficiency PMT. It is currently used in the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector and is of significant interest for future dark matter and neutrino experiments where high signal yields are needed. We report on the methods developed for in-situ characterization and monitoring of DEAP's 255 R5912-HQE PMTs. This includes a detailed discussion of typical measured single-photoelectron charge distributions, correlated noise (afterpulsing), dark noise, double, and late pulsing characteristics. Finally, the characterization is performed during the detector commissioning phase using laser light injected through a light diffusing sphere and during normal detector operation using LED light injected through optical fibres.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [4];  [7];  [3];  [5];  [4];  [1];  [4];  [3];  [7];  [8];  [4];  [4] more »;  [1];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [5];  [8];  [4];  [4];  [11];  [12];  [9];  [5];  [9];  [3];  [1];  [5];  [3];  [6];  [4];  [4];  [8];  [11];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [5];  [9];  [13];  [4];  [13];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [3];  [13];  [4];  [1];  [9];  [3];  [5];  [1];  [4];  [4];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [9];  [4];  [7];  [14];  [11];  [4];  [9];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [15];  [4];  [1];  [8];  [4];  [9];  [4];  [16];  [11];  [3];  [5];  [4];  [17];  [5];  [4];  [9];  [7];  [3];  [1] « less
  1. TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  2. Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada)
  3. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
  4. Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)
  5. Univ. of London, Egham (United Kingdom)
  6. Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)
  7. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex (United Kingdom)
  8. Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada)
  9. Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
  10. Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Ltd, Chalk River (Canada)
  11. Canadian Nuclear Laboratories Ltd, Chalk River (Canada)
  12. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada)
  13. SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada)
  14. Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Technische Univ. München (Germany)
  15. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  16. Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
  17. Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Univ. Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1580876
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 922; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; PMT; Hamamatsu R5912-HQE; single photoelectron charge distribution; afterpulsing; late and double pulsing; dark noise; dark matter detection

Citation Formats

Amaudruz, P. -A., Batygov, M., Beltran, B., Bina, C. E., Bishop, D., Bonatt, J., Boorman, G., Boulay, M. G., Broerman, B., Bromwich, T., Bueno, J. F., Butcher, A., Cai, B., Chan, S., Chen, M., Chouinard, R., Churchwell, S., Cleveland, B. T., Cranshaw, D., Dering, K., Dittmeier, S., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Erlandson, A., Fatemighomi, N., Ford, R. J., Gagnon, R., Giampa, P., Golovko, V. V., Gorel, P., Gornea, R., Grace, E., Graham, K., Grant, D. R., Gulyev, E., Hall, A., Hallin, A. L., Hamstra, M., Harvey, P. J., Hearns, C., Jillings, C. J., Kamaev, O., Kemp, A., Kuźniak, M., Langrock, S., La Zia, F., Lehnert, B., Li, O., Lidgard, J. J., Liimatainen, P., Lim, C., Lindner, T., Linn, Y., Liu, S., Mathew, R., McDonald, A. B., McElroy, T., McFarlane, K., McLaughlin, J., Mead, S., Mehdiyev, R., Mielnichuk, C., Monroe, J., Muir, A., Nadeau, P., Nantais, C., Ng, C., Noble, A. J., O’Dwyer, E., Ohlmann, C., Olchanski, K., Olsen, K. S., Ouellet, C., Pasuthip, P., Peeters, S. J. M., Pollmann, T. R., Rand, E. T., Rau, W., Rethmeier, C., Retière, F., Seeburn, N., Shaw, B., Singhrao, K., Skensved, P., Smith, B., Smith, N. J. T., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Stone, C., Strickland, V., Sur, B., Tang, J., Taylor, J., Veloce, L., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walding, J., Ward, M., Westerdale, S., White, R., Woolsey, E., and Zielinski, J. In-situ characterization of the Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier tubes used in the DEAP-3600 experiment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2018.12.058.
Amaudruz, P. -A., Batygov, M., Beltran, B., Bina, C. E., Bishop, D., Bonatt, J., Boorman, G., Boulay, M. G., Broerman, B., Bromwich, T., Bueno, J. F., Butcher, A., Cai, B., Chan, S., Chen, M., Chouinard, R., Churchwell, S., Cleveland, B. T., Cranshaw, D., Dering, K., Dittmeier, S., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Erlandson, A., Fatemighomi, N., Ford, R. J., Gagnon, R., Giampa, P., Golovko, V. V., Gorel, P., Gornea, R., Grace, E., Graham, K., Grant, D. R., Gulyev, E., Hall, A., Hallin, A. L., Hamstra, M., Harvey, P. J., Hearns, C., Jillings, C. J., Kamaev, O., Kemp, A., Kuźniak, M., Langrock, S., La Zia, F., Lehnert, B., Li, O., Lidgard, J. J., Liimatainen, P., Lim, C., Lindner, T., Linn, Y., Liu, S., Mathew, R., McDonald, A. B., McElroy, T., McFarlane, K., McLaughlin, J., Mead, S., Mehdiyev, R., Mielnichuk, C., Monroe, J., Muir, A., Nadeau, P., Nantais, C., Ng, C., Noble, A. J., O’Dwyer, E., Ohlmann, C., Olchanski, K., Olsen, K. S., Ouellet, C., Pasuthip, P., Peeters, S. J. M., Pollmann, T. R., Rand, E. T., Rau, W., Rethmeier, C., Retière, F., Seeburn, N., Shaw, B., Singhrao, K., Skensved, P., Smith, B., Smith, N. J. T., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Stone, C., Strickland, V., Sur, B., Tang, J., Taylor, J., Veloce, L., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walding, J., Ward, M., Westerdale, S., White, R., Woolsey, E., & Zielinski, J. In-situ characterization of the Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier tubes used in the DEAP-3600 experiment. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2018.12.058
Amaudruz, P. -A., Batygov, M., Beltran, B., Bina, C. E., Bishop, D., Bonatt, J., Boorman, G., Boulay, M. G., Broerman, B., Bromwich, T., Bueno, J. F., Butcher, A., Cai, B., Chan, S., Chen, M., Chouinard, R., Churchwell, S., Cleveland, B. T., Cranshaw, D., Dering, K., Dittmeier, S., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Erlandson, A., Fatemighomi, N., Ford, R. J., Gagnon, R., Giampa, P., Golovko, V. V., Gorel, P., Gornea, R., Grace, E., Graham, K., Grant, D. R., Gulyev, E., Hall, A., Hallin, A. L., Hamstra, M., Harvey, P. J., Hearns, C., Jillings, C. J., Kamaev, O., Kemp, A., Kuźniak, M., Langrock, S., La Zia, F., Lehnert, B., Li, O., Lidgard, J. J., Liimatainen, P., Lim, C., Lindner, T., Linn, Y., Liu, S., Mathew, R., McDonald, A. B., McElroy, T., McFarlane, K., McLaughlin, J., Mead, S., Mehdiyev, R., Mielnichuk, C., Monroe, J., Muir, A., Nadeau, P., Nantais, C., Ng, C., Noble, A. J., O’Dwyer, E., Ohlmann, C., Olchanski, K., Olsen, K. S., Ouellet, C., Pasuthip, P., Peeters, S. J. M., Pollmann, T. R., Rand, E. T., Rau, W., Rethmeier, C., Retière, F., Seeburn, N., Shaw, B., Singhrao, K., Skensved, P., Smith, B., Smith, N. J. T., Sonley, T., Stainforth, R., Stone, C., Strickland, V., Sur, B., Tang, J., Taylor, J., Veloce, L., Vázquez-Jáuregui, E., Walding, J., Ward, M., Westerdale, S., White, R., Woolsey, E., and Zielinski, J. Thu . "In-situ characterization of the Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier tubes used in the DEAP-3600 experiment". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2018.12.058. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1580876.
@article{osti_1580876,
title = {In-situ characterization of the Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier tubes used in the DEAP-3600 experiment},
author = {Amaudruz, P. -A. and Batygov, M. and Beltran, B. and Bina, C. E. and Bishop, D. and Bonatt, J. and Boorman, G. and Boulay, M. G. and Broerman, B. and Bromwich, T. and Bueno, J. F. and Butcher, A. and Cai, B. and Chan, S. and Chen, M. and Chouinard, R. and Churchwell, S. and Cleveland, B. T. and Cranshaw, D. and Dering, K. and Dittmeier, S. and Duncan, F. A. and Dunford, M. and Erlandson, A. and Fatemighomi, N. and Ford, R. J. and Gagnon, R. and Giampa, P. and Golovko, V. V. and Gorel, P. and Gornea, R. and Grace, E. and Graham, K. and Grant, D. R. and Gulyev, E. and Hall, A. and Hallin, A. L. and Hamstra, M. and Harvey, P. J. and Hearns, C. and Jillings, C. J. and Kamaev, O. and Kemp, A. and Kuźniak, M. and Langrock, S. and La Zia, F. and Lehnert, B. and Li, O. and Lidgard, J. J. and Liimatainen, P. and Lim, C. and Lindner, T. and Linn, Y. and Liu, S. and Mathew, R. and McDonald, A. B. and McElroy, T. and McFarlane, K. and McLaughlin, J. and Mead, S. and Mehdiyev, R. and Mielnichuk, C. and Monroe, J. and Muir, A. and Nadeau, P. and Nantais, C. and Ng, C. and Noble, A. J. and O’Dwyer, E. and Ohlmann, C. and Olchanski, K. and Olsen, K. S. and Ouellet, C. and Pasuthip, P. and Peeters, S. J. M. and Pollmann, T. R. and Rand, E. T. and Rau, W. and Rethmeier, C. and Retière, F. and Seeburn, N. and Shaw, B. and Singhrao, K. and Skensved, P. and Smith, B. and Smith, N. J. T. and Sonley, T. and Stainforth, R. and Stone, C. and Strickland, V. and Sur, B. and Tang, J. and Taylor, J. and Veloce, L. and Vázquez-Jáuregui, E. and Walding, J. and Ward, M. and Westerdale, S. and White, R. and Woolsey, E. and Zielinski, J.},
abstractNote = {The Hamamatsu R5912-HQE photomultiplier-tube (PMT) is a novel high-quantum efficiency PMT. It is currently used in the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector and is of significant interest for future dark matter and neutrino experiments where high signal yields are needed. We report on the methods developed for in-situ characterization and monitoring of DEAP's 255 R5912-HQE PMTs. This includes a detailed discussion of typical measured single-photoelectron charge distributions, correlated noise (afterpulsing), dark noise, double, and late pulsing characteristics. Finally, the characterization is performed during the detector commissioning phase using laser light injected through a light diffusing sphere and during normal detector operation using LED light injected through optical fibres.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2018.12.058},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1580876}, journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
issn = {0168-9002},
number = C,
volume = 922,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Search for dark matter with a 231-day exposure of liquid argon using DEAP-3600 at SNOLAB
journal, July 2019


Electromagnetic backgrounds and potassium-42 activity in the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector
journal, October 2019