skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Modeling Arctic boundary layer cloud streets at grey-zone resolutions

Abstract

To better understand how model resolution affects the formation of Arctic boundary layer clouds, we investigated the influence of grid spacing on simulating cloud streets that occurred near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska on 2 May 2013 and were observed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the clouds using nested domains with increasingly fine resolution ranging from a horizontal grid spacing of 27 km in the boundary-layer-parameterized mesoscale domain to a grid spacing of 0.111 km in the large-eddy-permitting domain. We investigated the model-simulated mesoscale environment, horizontal and vertical cloud structures, boundary layer stability, and cloud properties, all of which were subsequently used to interpret the observed roll-cloud case. Increasing model resolution led to a transition from a more buoyant boundary layer to a more shear-driven turbulent boundary layer. The clouds were stratiform-like in the mesoscale domain, but as the model resolution increased, roll-like structures, aligned along the wind field, appeared with ever smaller wavelengths. A stronger vertical water vapor gradient occurred above the cloud layers with decreasing grid spacing. With fixed model grid spacing at 0.333 km, changing the model configuration from a boundary layer parameterization to a large-eddy-permittingmore » scheme produced a more shear-driven and less unstable environment, a stronger vertical water vapor gradient below the cloud layers, and the wavelengths of the rolls decreased slightly. In this study, only the large-eddy-permitting simulation with gird spacing of 0.111 km was sufficient to model the observed roll clouds.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4]
  1. University of Gothenburg
  2. Pennsylvania State University
  3. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  4. Goteborgs University
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1580510
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-147832
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Lai, Hui-Wen, Zhang, Fuqing, Clothiaux, E E., Stauffer, David R., Gaudet, Brian J., Verlinde, J., and Chen, Deliang. Modeling Arctic boundary layer cloud streets at grey-zone resolutions. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1007/s00376-019-9105-y.
Lai, Hui-Wen, Zhang, Fuqing, Clothiaux, E E., Stauffer, David R., Gaudet, Brian J., Verlinde, J., & Chen, Deliang. Modeling Arctic boundary layer cloud streets at grey-zone resolutions. United States. doi:10.1007/s00376-019-9105-y.
Lai, Hui-Wen, Zhang, Fuqing, Clothiaux, E E., Stauffer, David R., Gaudet, Brian J., Verlinde, J., and Chen, Deliang. Thu . "Modeling Arctic boundary layer cloud streets at grey-zone resolutions". United States. doi:10.1007/s00376-019-9105-y.
@article{osti_1580510,
title = {Modeling Arctic boundary layer cloud streets at grey-zone resolutions},
author = {Lai, Hui-Wen and Zhang, Fuqing and Clothiaux, E E. and Stauffer, David R. and Gaudet, Brian J. and Verlinde, J. and Chen, Deliang},
abstractNote = {To better understand how model resolution affects the formation of Arctic boundary layer clouds, we investigated the influence of grid spacing on simulating cloud streets that occurred near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska on 2 May 2013 and were observed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the clouds using nested domains with increasingly fine resolution ranging from a horizontal grid spacing of 27 km in the boundary-layer-parameterized mesoscale domain to a grid spacing of 0.111 km in the large-eddy-permitting domain. We investigated the model-simulated mesoscale environment, horizontal and vertical cloud structures, boundary layer stability, and cloud properties, all of which were subsequently used to interpret the observed roll-cloud case. Increasing model resolution led to a transition from a more buoyant boundary layer to a more shear-driven turbulent boundary layer. The clouds were stratiform-like in the mesoscale domain, but as the model resolution increased, roll-like structures, aligned along the wind field, appeared with ever smaller wavelengths. A stronger vertical water vapor gradient occurred above the cloud layers with decreasing grid spacing. With fixed model grid spacing at 0.333 km, changing the model configuration from a boundary layer parameterization to a large-eddy-permitting scheme produced a more shear-driven and less unstable environment, a stronger vertical water vapor gradient below the cloud layers, and the wavelengths of the rolls decreased slightly. In this study, only the large-eddy-permitting simulation with gird spacing of 0.111 km was sufficient to model the observed roll clouds.},
doi = {10.1007/s00376-019-9105-y},
journal = {Advances in Atmospheric Sciences},
number = 1,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Three-Dimensional Features of Thermal Convection in a Plane Couette Flow [平面Couette流中の熱対流の3次元的性状]
journal, January 1970


Mesoscale shallow convection in the atmosphere
journal, November 1996

  • Atkinson, B. W.; Wu Zhang, J.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 34, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/96RG02623

Sensitivity of simulated wintertime Arctic atmosphere to vertical resolution in the ARPEGE/IFS model
journal, October 2007


Effects of resolution on the simulation of boundary-layer clouds and the partition of kinetic energy to subgrid scales
journal, January 2010

  • Cheng, Anning; Xu, Kuan-Man; Stevens, Bjorn
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 2
  • DOI: 10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.3

Near-surface meteorology during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): evaluation of reanalyses and global climate models
journal, January 2014

  • de Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; Caldwell, P. M.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-427-2014

Numerical Investigation of Neutral and Unstable Planetary Boundary Layers
journal, January 1972


Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model
journal, June 1980

  • Deardorff, James W.
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00119502

Ice formation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Insights from a 3-D cloud-resolving model with size-resolved aerosol and cloud microphysics
journal, January 2009

  • Fan, Jiwen; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Comstock, Jennifer M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue D4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JD010782

Exploring the convective grey zone with regional simulations of a cold air outbreak
journal, July 2017

  • Field, Paul R.; Broz̆ková, Radmila; Chen, Ming
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 143, Issue 707
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.3105

Sensitivity of U.S. summer precipitation to model resolution and convective parameterizations across gray zone resolutions: Sensitivity Across Gray Zone Resolutions
journal, March 2017

  • Gao, Yang; Leung, L. Ruby; Zhao, Chun
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 122, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025896

Lineal Eddy Features under Strong Shear Conditions
journal, December 1996


Numerical simulations of Hurricane Katrina (2005) in the turbulent gray zone
journal, February 2015

  • Green, Benjamin W.; Zhang, Fuqing
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014MS000399

Next-Generation Numerical Weather Prediction: Bridging Parameterization, Explicit Clouds, and Large Eddies
journal, January 2012

  • Hong, Song-You; Dudhia, Jimy
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011BAMS3224.1

‘Evolution of a Storm-driven Cloudy Boundary Layer in the Arctic’
journal, November 2005

  • Inoue, Jun; Kosović, Branko; Curry, Judith A.
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 117, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-004-6003-2

Intercomparison of Arctic Regional Climate Models: Modeling Clouds and Radiation for SHEBA in May 1998
journal, September 2006

  • Inoue, Jun; Liu, Jiping; Pinto, James O.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3854.1

Cloud Resolving Modeling of the ARM Summer 1997 IOP: Model Formulation, Results, Uncertainties, and Sensitivities
journal, February 2003


Three-Dimensional Buoyancy- and Shear-Induced Local Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
journal, March 1998


Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. I: single-layer cloud
journal, April 2009

  • Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 135, Issue 641
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.416

The Band Structure of the Atmosphere
journal, January 1959


Cloud bands in the earth's atmosphere: Observations and Theory
journal, January 1971


Sensitivity of Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations to Changes in Vertical Resolution
journal, March 2000


Challenges for Cloud Modeling in the Context of Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation Interactions
journal, August 2017

  • Lebo, Zachary J.; Shipway, Ben J.; Fan, Jiwen
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 98, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0291.1

Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds Simulated by a Cloud-Resolving Model: Comparison with ARM Observations and Sensitivity to Microphysics Parameterizations
journal, April 2008

  • Luo, Yali; Xu, Kuan-Man; Morrison, Hugh
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 65, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JAS2467.1

A Comparison of Shear- and Buoyancy-Driven Planetary Boundary Layer Flows
journal, April 1994


Use of X-Band Differential Reflectivity Measurements to Study Shallow Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds
journal, February 2016

  • Oue, Mariko; Galletti, Michele; Verlinde, Johannes
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 55, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0168.1

Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a Marine Convective Boundary Layer with Snow
journal, January 1996


Sensitivity of Simulated Climate to Horizontal and Vertical Resolution in the ECHAM5 Atmosphere Model
journal, August 2006

  • Roeckner, E.; Brokopf, R.; Esch, M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3824.1

On the Nature of the Transition Between Roll and Cellular Organization in the Convective Boundary Layer
journal, November 2016

  • Salesky, Scott T.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Bou-Zeid, Elie
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 163, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10546-016-0220-3

Large‐eddy simulation of three mixed‐phase cloud events during ISDAC: Conditions for persistent heterogeneous ice formation
journal, August 2015

  • Savre, J.; Ekman, A. M. L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 120, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JD023006

The Sensitivity of Springtime Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus Clouds to Surface-Layer and Cloud-Top Inversion-Layer Moisture Sources
journal, February 2014

  • Solomon, Amy; Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, Ola
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 71, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0179.1

Effects of Domain Size and Numerical Resolution on the Simulation of Shallow Cumulus Convection
journal, December 2002


How Well Do Regional Climate Models Reproduce Radiation and Clouds in the Arctic? An Evaluation of ARCMIP Simulations
journal, September 2008

  • Tjernström, Michael; Sedlar, Joseph; Shupe, Matthew D.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JAMC1845.1

Horizontal Convective Rolls: Determining the Environmental Conditions Supporting their Existence and Characteristics
journal, April 1997


An Observational Study of the Evolution of Horizontal Convective Rolls
journal, September 1999


Toward Numerical Modeling in the “Terra Incognita”
journal, July 2004


Supplement to Rolls, Streets, Waves, and More
journal, July 2002

  • Young, George S.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 83, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-83-7-Young

What Is the Predictability Limit of Midlatitude Weather?
journal, April 2019

  • Zhang, Fuqing; Sun, Y. Qiang; Magnusson, Linus
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 76, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0269.1