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Title: Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice

Abstract

Designing and constructing model systems that embody the statistical mechanics of frustration is now possible using nanotechnology. We have arranged nanomagnets on a two-dimensional square lattice to form an artificial spin ice, and studied its fractional excitations, emergent magnetic monopoles, and how they respond to a driving field using X-ray magnetic microscopy. We observe a regime in which the monopole drift velocity is linear in field above a critical field for the onset of motion. The temperature dependence of the critical field can be described by introducing an interaction term into the Bean-Livingston model of field-assisted barrier hopping. By analogy with electrical charge drift motion, we define and measure a monopole mobility that is larger both for higher temperatures and stronger interactions between nanomagnets. The mobility in this linear regime is described by a creep model of zero-dimensional charges moving within a network of quasi-one-dimensional objects.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  2. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab., ISIS Neutron and Muon Source; BCMaterials, Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Leioa (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)
  3. Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)
  4. Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab., ISIS Neutron and Muon Source
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Inst. of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea)
  6. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF); Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
OSTI Identifier:
1580413
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; EP/L00285X/1; EP/L003090/1
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Morley, Sophie A., Porro, Jose Maria, Hrabec, Aleš, Rosamond, Mark C., Venero, Diego Alba, Linfield, Edmund H., Burnell, Gavin, Im, Mi-Young, Fischer, Peter, Langridge, Sean, and Marrows, Christopher H. Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-52460-7.
Morley, Sophie A., Porro, Jose Maria, Hrabec, Aleš, Rosamond, Mark C., Venero, Diego Alba, Linfield, Edmund H., Burnell, Gavin, Im, Mi-Young, Fischer, Peter, Langridge, Sean, & Marrows, Christopher H. Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-52460-7.
Morley, Sophie A., Porro, Jose Maria, Hrabec, Aleš, Rosamond, Mark C., Venero, Diego Alba, Linfield, Edmund H., Burnell, Gavin, Im, Mi-Young, Fischer, Peter, Langridge, Sean, and Marrows, Christopher H. Tue . "Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-52460-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1580413.
@article{osti_1580413,
title = {Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice},
author = {Morley, Sophie A. and Porro, Jose Maria and Hrabec, Aleš and Rosamond, Mark C. and Venero, Diego Alba and Linfield, Edmund H. and Burnell, Gavin and Im, Mi-Young and Fischer, Peter and Langridge, Sean and Marrows, Christopher H.},
abstractNote = {Designing and constructing model systems that embody the statistical mechanics of frustration is now possible using nanotechnology. We have arranged nanomagnets on a two-dimensional square lattice to form an artificial spin ice, and studied its fractional excitations, emergent magnetic monopoles, and how they respond to a driving field using X-ray magnetic microscopy. We observe a regime in which the monopole drift velocity is linear in field above a critical field for the onset of motion. The temperature dependence of the critical field can be described by introducing an interaction term into the Bean-Livingston model of field-assisted barrier hopping. By analogy with electrical charge drift motion, we define and measure a monopole mobility that is larger both for higher temperatures and stronger interactions between nanomagnets. The mobility in this linear regime is described by a creep model of zero-dimensional charges moving within a network of quasi-one-dimensional objects.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-52460-7},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
issn = {2045-2322},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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    journal, June 2005

    • Chao, Weilun; Harteneck, Bruce D.; Liddle, J. Alexander
    • Nature, Vol. 435, Issue 7046
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature03719

    Artificial ‘spin ice’ in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands
    journal, January 2006

    • Wang, R. F.; Nisoli, C.; Freitas, R. S.
    • Nature, Vol. 439, Issue 7074
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature04447

    Magnetic monopoles in spin ice
    journal, January 2008

    • Castelnovo, C.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.
    • Nature, Vol. 451, Issue 7174
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature06433

    Interdimensional universality of dynamic interfaces
    journal, April 2009

    • Kim, Kab-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ahn, Sung-Min
    • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7239
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature07874

    Measurement of the charge and current of magnetic monopoles in spin ice
    journal, October 2009

    • Bramwell, S. T.; Giblin, S. R.; Calder, S.
    • Nature, Vol. 461, Issue 7266
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature08500

    Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice
    journal, August 2013

    • Zhang, Sheng; Gilbert, Ian; Nisoli, Cristiano
    • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12399

    Extensive degeneracy, Coulomb phase and magnetic monopoles in artificial square ice
    journal, November 2016

    • Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas
    • Nature, Vol. 540, Issue 7633
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature20155

    Thermodynamic phase transitions in a frustrated magnetic metamaterial
    journal, September 2015

    • Anghinolfi, L.; Luetkens, H.; Perron, J.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9278

    Dynamics of field-driven domain-wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanowires
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    • Beach, Geoffrey S. D.; Nistor, Corneliu; Knutson, Carl
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1477

    Thermal fluctuations in artificial spin ice
    journal, June 2014

    • Kapaklis, Vassilios; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Farhan, Alan
    • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. 514-519
    • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.104

    Direct observation of magnetic monopole defects in an artificial spin-ice system
    journal, April 2010

    • Ladak, S.; Read, D. E.; Perkins, G. K.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1628

    Real-space observation of emergent magnetic monopoles and associated Dirac strings in artificial kagome spin ice
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    • Mengotti, Elena; Heyderman, Laura J.; Rodríguez, Arantxa Fraile
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1794

    Thermal ground-state ordering and elementary excitations in artificial magnetic square ice
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    • Morgan, Jason P.; Stein, Aaron; Langridge, Sean
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1853

    Creation and measurement of long-lived magnetic monopole currents in spin ice
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    • Giblin, S. R.; Bramwell, S. T.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1896

    Exploring hyper-cubic energy landscapes in thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems
    journal, May 2013

    • Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Kleibert, A.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2613

    Emergent ice rule and magnetic charge screening from vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
    journal, August 2014

    • Gilbert, Ian; Chern, Gia-Wei; Zhang, Sheng
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3037

    Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
    journal, October 2015

    • Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3520

    Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices
    journal, February 2018


    Effect of FePd alloy composition on the dynamics of artificial spin ice
    journal, March 2018


    Creep turns linear in narrow ferromagnetic nanostrips
    journal, February 2016

    • Leliaert, Jonathan; Van de Wiele, Ben; Vansteenkiste, Arne
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep20472

    Superparamagnetism
    journal, April 1959

    • Bean, C. P.; Livingston, J. D.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2185850

    Hopping conduction in La 1–x Sr x CoO 3 and Nd 1–x Sr x CoO 3
    journal, December 1975


    Melting artificial spin ice
    journal, March 2012


    Exploring thermally induced states in square artificial spin-ice arrays
    journal, May 2013


    Artificial kagome spin ice: dimensional reduction, avalanche control and emergent magnetic monopoles
    journal, December 2012

    • Hügli, R. V.; Duff, G.; O'Conchuir, B.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 370, Issue 1981
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0538

    Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice
    journal, February 2019

    • Farhan, Alan; Saccone, Michael; Petersen, Charlotte F.
    • Science Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav6380

    Magnetic Coulomb Phase in the Spin Ice Ho2Ti2O7
    journal, September 2009


    Dirac Strings and Magnetic Monopoles in the Spin Ice Dy2Ti2O7
    journal, September 2009