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Title: Low-Defect and Low-Porosity Hard Carbon with High Coulombic Efficiency and High Capacity for Practical Sodium Ion Battery Anode

Abstract

Hard carbon is regarded as the most promising anode material for commercialization of Na ion batteries because of its high capacity and low cost. At present, the practical utilization of hard carbon anodes is largely limited by the low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE). Na ions have been found to adopt an adsorption–insertion storage mechanism. In this paper a systematic way to control the defect concentration and porosity of hard carbon with similar overall architectures is shown. This study elucidates that the defects in the graphite layers are directly related to the ICE as they would trap Na ions and create a repulsive electric field for other Na ions so as to shorten the low-voltage intercalation capacity. The obtained low defect and porosity hard carbon electrode has achieved the highest ICE of 86.1% (94.5% for pure hard carbon material by subtracting that of the conductive carbon black), reversible capacity of 361 mA h g-1, and excellent cycle stability (93.4% of capacity retention over 100 cycles). This result sheds light on feasible design principles for high performance Na storage hard carbon: suitable carbon layer distance and defect free graphitic layers.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS
  2. Wuhan University
  3. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1578092
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-134327
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 20
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Xiao, Lifen, Lu, Haiyan, Fang, Yongjin, Sushko, Maria L., Cao, Yuliang, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, and Liu, Jun. Low-Defect and Low-Porosity Hard Carbon with High Coulombic Efficiency and High Capacity for Practical Sodium Ion Battery Anode. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201703238.
Xiao, Lifen, Lu, Haiyan, Fang, Yongjin, Sushko, Maria L., Cao, Yuliang, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, & Liu, Jun. Low-Defect and Low-Porosity Hard Carbon with High Coulombic Efficiency and High Capacity for Practical Sodium Ion Battery Anode. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201703238.
Xiao, Lifen, Lu, Haiyan, Fang, Yongjin, Sushko, Maria L., Cao, Yuliang, Ai, Xinping, Yang, Hanxi, and Liu, Jun. Mon . "Low-Defect and Low-Porosity Hard Carbon with High Coulombic Efficiency and High Capacity for Practical Sodium Ion Battery Anode". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201703238.
@article{osti_1578092,
title = {Low-Defect and Low-Porosity Hard Carbon with High Coulombic Efficiency and High Capacity for Practical Sodium Ion Battery Anode},
author = {Xiao, Lifen and Lu, Haiyan and Fang, Yongjin and Sushko, Maria L. and Cao, Yuliang and Ai, Xinping and Yang, Hanxi and Liu, Jun},
abstractNote = {Hard carbon is regarded as the most promising anode material for commercialization of Na ion batteries because of its high capacity and low cost. At present, the practical utilization of hard carbon anodes is largely limited by the low initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE). Na ions have been found to adopt an adsorption–insertion storage mechanism. In this paper a systematic way to control the defect concentration and porosity of hard carbon with similar overall architectures is shown. This study elucidates that the defects in the graphite layers are directly related to the ICE as they would trap Na ions and create a repulsive electric field for other Na ions so as to shorten the low-voltage intercalation capacity. The obtained low defect and porosity hard carbon electrode has achieved the highest ICE of 86.1% (94.5% for pure hard carbon material by subtracting that of the conductive carbon black), reversible capacity of 361 mA h g-1, and excellent cycle stability (93.4% of capacity retention over 100 cycles). This result sheds light on feasible design principles for high performance Na storage hard carbon: suitable carbon layer distance and defect free graphitic layers.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201703238},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = 20,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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