skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Field testing of modular borehole monitoring with simultaneous distributed acoustic sensing and geophone vertical seismic profiles at Citronelle, Alabama: Field testing of MBM

Abstract

A modular borehole monitoring concept has been implemented to provide a suite of well-based monitoring tools that can be deployed cost effectively in a flexible and robust package. The initial modular borehole monitoring system was deployed as part of a CO 2 injection test operated by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership near Citronelle, Alabama. The Citronelle modular monitoring system transmits electrical power and signals, fibre-optic light pulses, and fluids between the surface and a reservoir. Additionally, a separate multi-conductor tubing-encapsulated line was used for borehole geophones, including a specialized clamp for casing clamping with tubing deployment. The deployment of geophones and fibre-optic cables allowed comparison testing of distributed acoustic sensing. We designed a large source effort (>64 sweeps per source point) to test fibre-optic vertical seismic profile and acquired data in 2013. The native measurement in the specific distributed acoustic sensing unit used (an iDAS from Silixa Ltd) is described as a localized strain rate. Following a processing flow of adaptive noise reduction and rebalancing the signal to dimensionless strain, improvement from repeated stacking of the source was observed. Conversion of the rebalanced strain signal to equivalent velocity units, via a scaling by local apparent velocity, allows quantitative comparisonmore » of distributed acoustic sensing and geophone data in units of velocity. We see a very good match of uncorrelated time series in both amplitude and phase, demonstrating that velocity-converted distributed acoustic sensing data can be analyzed equivalent to vertical geophones. We show that distributed acoustic sensing data, when averaged over an interval comparable to typical geophone spacing, can obtain signal-to-noise ratios of 18 dB to 24 dB below clamped geophones, a result that is variable with noise spectral amplitude because the noise characteristics are not identical. With vertical seismic profile processing, we demonstrate the effectiveness of downgoing deconvolution from the large spatial sampling of distributed acoustic sensing data, along with improved upgoing reflection quality. finally, we conclude that the extra source effort currently needed for tubing-deployed distributed acoustic sensing vertical seismic profile, as part of a modular monitoring system, is well compensated by the extra spatial sampling and lower deployment cost as compared with conventional borehole geophones.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Silixa, Ltd, Elstree (United Kingom)
  3. BP, London (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1576498
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Prospecting
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-8025
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; acquisition; borehole geophysics; seismics; fibre-optic DAS

Citation Formats

Daley, T. M., Miller, D. E., Dodds, K., Cook, P., and Freifeld, B. M. Field testing of modular borehole monitoring with simultaneous distributed acoustic sensing and geophone vertical seismic profiles at Citronelle, Alabama: Field testing of MBM. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12324.
Daley, T. M., Miller, D. E., Dodds, K., Cook, P., & Freifeld, B. M. Field testing of modular borehole monitoring with simultaneous distributed acoustic sensing and geophone vertical seismic profiles at Citronelle, Alabama: Field testing of MBM. United States. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12324.
Daley, T. M., Miller, D. E., Dodds, K., Cook, P., and Freifeld, B. M. Mon . "Field testing of modular borehole monitoring with simultaneous distributed acoustic sensing and geophone vertical seismic profiles at Citronelle, Alabama: Field testing of MBM". United States. doi:10.1111/1365-2478.12324. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1576498.
@article{osti_1576498,
title = {Field testing of modular borehole monitoring with simultaneous distributed acoustic sensing and geophone vertical seismic profiles at Citronelle, Alabama: Field testing of MBM},
author = {Daley, T. M. and Miller, D. E. and Dodds, K. and Cook, P. and Freifeld, B. M.},
abstractNote = {A modular borehole monitoring concept has been implemented to provide a suite of well-based monitoring tools that can be deployed cost effectively in a flexible and robust package. The initial modular borehole monitoring system was deployed as part of a CO2 injection test operated by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership near Citronelle, Alabama. The Citronelle modular monitoring system transmits electrical power and signals, fibre-optic light pulses, and fluids between the surface and a reservoir. Additionally, a separate multi-conductor tubing-encapsulated line was used for borehole geophones, including a specialized clamp for casing clamping with tubing deployment. The deployment of geophones and fibre-optic cables allowed comparison testing of distributed acoustic sensing. We designed a large source effort (>64 sweeps per source point) to test fibre-optic vertical seismic profile and acquired data in 2013. The native measurement in the specific distributed acoustic sensing unit used (an iDAS from Silixa Ltd) is described as a localized strain rate. Following a processing flow of adaptive noise reduction and rebalancing the signal to dimensionless strain, improvement from repeated stacking of the source was observed. Conversion of the rebalanced strain signal to equivalent velocity units, via a scaling by local apparent velocity, allows quantitative comparison of distributed acoustic sensing and geophone data in units of velocity. We see a very good match of uncorrelated time series in both amplitude and phase, demonstrating that velocity-converted distributed acoustic sensing data can be analyzed equivalent to vertical geophones. We show that distributed acoustic sensing data, when averaged over an interval comparable to typical geophone spacing, can obtain signal-to-noise ratios of 18 dB to 24 dB below clamped geophones, a result that is variable with noise spectral amplitude because the noise characteristics are not identical. With vertical seismic profile processing, we demonstrate the effectiveness of downgoing deconvolution from the large spatial sampling of distributed acoustic sensing data, along with improved upgoing reflection quality. finally, we conclude that the extra source effort currently needed for tubing-deployed distributed acoustic sensing vertical seismic profile, as part of a modular monitoring system, is well compensated by the extra spatial sampling and lower deployment cost as compared with conventional borehole geophones.},
doi = {10.1111/1365-2478.12324},
journal = {Geophysical Prospecting},
issn = {0016-8025},
number = 5,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 28 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Multichannel Wiener deconvolution of vertical seismic profiles
journal, October 1994

  • Haldorsen, Jakob B. U.; Miller, Douglas E.; Walsh, John J.
  • GEOPHYSICS, Vol. 59, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1190/1.1443540

Integrating carbon capture with transportation and storage
journal, January 2011


Advances in Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for VSP
conference, October 2012


Recent advances in well-based monitoring of CO2 sequestration
journal, February 2009


Field testing of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for subsurface seismic monitoring
journal, June 2013

  • Daley, Thomas M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan
  • The Leading Edge, Vol. 32, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1190/tle32060699.1

Vertical Seismic Profiling Using a Fibre-optic Cable as a Distributed Acoustic Sensor
conference, June 2012

  • Miller, D.; Parker, T.; Kashikar, S.
  • 74th EAGE Conference and Exhibition incorporating EUROPEC 2012, Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.20148799

Adaptive noise cancelling: Principles and applications
journal, January 1975


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Fluid pressure sensing with fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing
    journal, December 2017

    • Becker, Matthew; Coleman, Thomas; Ciervo, Christopher
    • The Leading Edge, Vol. 36, Issue 12, p. 1018-1023
    • DOI: 10.1190/tle36121018.1

    Fluid pressure sensing with fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing
    journal, December 2017

    • Becker, Matthew; Coleman, Thomas; Ciervo, Christopher
    • The Leading Edge, Vol. 36, Issue 12, p. 1018-1023
    • DOI: 10.1190/tle36121018.1