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Title: The Importance of Secondary Halos for Strong Lensing in Massive Galaxy Clusters across Redshift

Abstract

Cosmological cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing probes the mass distribution of the dense cores of massive dark matter halos and the structures along the line of sight from background sources to the observer. It is frequently assumed that the primary lens mass dominates the lensing, with the contribution of secondary masses along the line of sight being neglected. Secondary mass structures may, however, affect both the detectability of strong lensing in a given survey and modify the properties of the lensing that is detected. This paper focuses on the former: we utilize a large cosmological N-body simulation and a multiple lens plane (and many-source plane) ray-tracing technique to quantify the influence of line-of-sight structures on the detectability of cluster-scale strong lensing in a cluster sample with a mass limit that encompasses current cluster catalogs from the South Pole Telescope. We extract both primary and secondary halos from the “Outer Rim” simulation and consider two strong lensing realizations—one with only the primary halos included, and the other with the full mass light cone for each primary halo, including all secondary halos down to a mass limit more than an order of magnitude smaller than the smallest primary halos considered. In both cases,more » we use the same source information extracted from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and create realistic lensed images consistent with moderately deep ground-based imaging; the statistics of the observed strong lensing are extracted from these simulated images. The results demonstrate that down to the mass limit considered the total number of lenses is boosted by ~13%–21% when considering the complete multi-halo light cone; the enhancement is insensitive to different length-to-width cuts applied to the lensed arcs. The increment in strong lens counts peaks at lens redshifts of z ~ 0.6 with no significant effect at z < 0.3. The strongest trends are observed relative to the primary halo mass, with no significant effect in the most massive quintile of the halo sample, but increasingly boosting the observed lens counts toward small primary halo masses, with an enhancement greater than 50% in the least massive quintile of the halo masses considered.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science - Office of High Energy Physics
OSTI Identifier:
1573368
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 878; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
keywords

Citation Formats

Li, Nan, Gladders, Michael D., Heitmann, Katrin, Rangel, Esteban M., Child, Hillary L., Florian, Michael K., Bleem, Lindsey E., Habib, Salman, and Finkel, Hal J. The Importance of Secondary Halos for Strong Lensing in Massive Galaxy Clusters across Redshift. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1f74.
Li, Nan, Gladders, Michael D., Heitmann, Katrin, Rangel, Esteban M., Child, Hillary L., Florian, Michael K., Bleem, Lindsey E., Habib, Salman, & Finkel, Hal J. The Importance of Secondary Halos for Strong Lensing in Massive Galaxy Clusters across Redshift. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1f74.
Li, Nan, Gladders, Michael D., Heitmann, Katrin, Rangel, Esteban M., Child, Hillary L., Florian, Michael K., Bleem, Lindsey E., Habib, Salman, and Finkel, Hal J. Thu . "The Importance of Secondary Halos for Strong Lensing in Massive Galaxy Clusters across Redshift". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1f74.
@article{osti_1573368,
title = {The Importance of Secondary Halos for Strong Lensing in Massive Galaxy Clusters across Redshift},
author = {Li, Nan and Gladders, Michael D. and Heitmann, Katrin and Rangel, Esteban M. and Child, Hillary L. and Florian, Michael K. and Bleem, Lindsey E. and Habib, Salman and Finkel, Hal J.},
abstractNote = {Cosmological cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing probes the mass distribution of the dense cores of massive dark matter halos and the structures along the line of sight from background sources to the observer. It is frequently assumed that the primary lens mass dominates the lensing, with the contribution of secondary masses along the line of sight being neglected. Secondary mass structures may, however, affect both the detectability of strong lensing in a given survey and modify the properties of the lensing that is detected. This paper focuses on the former: we utilize a large cosmological N-body simulation and a multiple lens plane (and many-source plane) ray-tracing technique to quantify the influence of line-of-sight structures on the detectability of cluster-scale strong lensing in a cluster sample with a mass limit that encompasses current cluster catalogs from the South Pole Telescope. We extract both primary and secondary halos from the “Outer Rim” simulation and consider two strong lensing realizations—one with only the primary halos included, and the other with the full mass light cone for each primary halo, including all secondary halos down to a mass limit more than an order of magnitude smaller than the smallest primary halos considered. In both cases, we use the same source information extracted from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and create realistic lensed images consistent with moderately deep ground-based imaging; the statistics of the observed strong lensing are extracted from these simulated images. The results demonstrate that down to the mass limit considered the total number of lenses is boosted by ~13%–21% when considering the complete multi-halo light cone; the enhancement is insensitive to different length-to-width cuts applied to the lensed arcs. The increment in strong lens counts peaks at lens redshifts of z ~ 0.6 with no significant effect at z < 0.3. The strongest trends are observed relative to the primary halo mass, with no significant effect in the most massive quintile of the halo sample, but increasingly boosting the observed lens counts toward small primary halo masses, with an enhancement greater than 50% in the least massive quintile of the halo masses considered.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab1f74},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 878,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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