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Title: Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry Storage

Abstract

This final report is summarized four years of work of awarded project number DE-NE0008442\IRP-15-9318, title as: “Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry” supported by Nuclear Energy University Program\Integrated Research Program, NEUP\IRP, where last year is an extension of no cost project. This research work is focused on the possible degradation of dry storage canister holding used nuclear fuel (UNF), due to exposure of marine atmospheric environment. The canister usually designed from a welded austenitic stainless-steel of types 304 or 316, encased in a concrete shell known as an overpack. This canister designed and licensed for 20 years with an extension period need to be determined, in addition 20 years or more. These casks are located throughout the country in Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (IFSFIs) often on the site close to nuclear power plants, that are often located in coastal or lake-side regions where a marine atmospheric salt air environment exist. As a result of several recent decisions, such as not pursuing Yucca Mountain as a long-term geologic repository storage facility for UNF and the cancellation of the construction of a reprocessing facility in the 1980s due to proliferation risks, interim dry storage facilities formore » long-term storage are vital option for the immediate future of nuclear energy technology. One of the primary concerns with respect to the long-term performance of the storage casks is the potential for corrosion initiation due to deliquescence of salts deposited on the canister surface as aerosols; in regions of high residual weld stresses, this may lead to localized stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Dust and aerosols in the air being drawn though ventilation openings in the overpacks of passively ventilated dry canister storage systems may be deposited on the stainless-steel canister outer surfaces. Under these conditions, localized corrosion attack can occur. Chlorides ions deliquescence on the canister surface, a process by which the salts essentially pull moisture out of the air, creating a concentrated salt brine on the canister surface. Chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) of welded zones is of special concern, as it a well-documented mode of attack for austenitic stainless steels marine environments, and many independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) are located in coastal areas. Recent canister inspections have shown that chloride salts are present on the surface of in-service canisters at near-marine settings. However, canister surface inspections of satisfactory resolution to detect SCC have never been carried out in details, because access to the canister surfaces through vents in the overpacks is extremely limited, and high radiation fields make removal of the canisters from the overpacks undesirable. Although no significant corrosion damage has not been detected up to date, there is concern that this may lead to pitting corrosion, which could in turn develop into stress corrosion cracking, causing canister structural failure. The initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion has been widely studied in full immersion conditions, but limited studies have been done on marine atmospheric conditions, which is a focus of this work, these includes laboratory and field experimentally and propagation rate modeling of pitting and transition to crack, and crack propagation rate. It is known, however, that the rate of atmospheric corrosion can be affected by variations in relative humidity (RH), salt density, salt type, droplet area, temperature and stainless-steel microstructure and residual stress particularly in welded zones of canisters. The integrated research program has identified potential deterioration mechanisms for the stainless-steel canisters containing the UNF in dry storage that require detailed research and investigation and will have an impact on the performance of long-term interim storage under the normal and extreme environmental conditions experienced during the duration of this storage. The prediction and monitoring of canister corrosion processes while in storage can provide important data for the assessment of interim storage performance and the safety to the public. This report comprises of mainly the published results in different journals and covering a wide range spectrum from susceptible stainless-steel types 304\316 microstructural analysis through the implant test at atmospheric environment, residual stress analysis of mockup canister and simulation, inspection methodology includes nonlinear ultrasound and vibro-thermography and stochastic modeling and simulation of pits propagation rates and transition to cracks. Description of field specimens installed at ISFSI of Main Yankee is given in the following chapters and will be analyzed in the coming future and serves as an important data for a stochastic analysis as it was drawn from the publications and reports described in this report. The purpose of this report is to bring together the project efforts that includes improving in our understanding of structural aging performance at current dry storage casks fleet at ISFSIs in the context of remedial maintenance and inspection applications technologies.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1572398
Report Number(s):
15-9318
IRP 15-9318
DOE Contract Number:  
NE0008442
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Dry Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel SCC Pitting Stainless Steels Application of Stochastic Modeling to Pitting NDT

Citation Formats

Shayer, Zeev. Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry Storage. United States: N. p., 2019. Web.
Shayer, Zeev. Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry Storage. United States.
Shayer, Zeev. Wed . "Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry Storage". United States.
@article{osti_1572398,
title = {Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry Storage},
author = {Shayer, Zeev},
abstractNote = {This final report is summarized four years of work of awarded project number DE-NE0008442\IRP-15-9318, title as: “Innovative Approach to SCC Inspection and Evaluation of Canister in Dry” supported by Nuclear Energy University Program\Integrated Research Program, NEUP\IRP, where last year is an extension of no cost project. This research work is focused on the possible degradation of dry storage canister holding used nuclear fuel (UNF), due to exposure of marine atmospheric environment. The canister usually designed from a welded austenitic stainless-steel of types 304 or 316, encased in a concrete shell known as an overpack. This canister designed and licensed for 20 years with an extension period need to be determined, in addition 20 years or more. These casks are located throughout the country in Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (IFSFIs) often on the site close to nuclear power plants, that are often located in coastal or lake-side regions where a marine atmospheric salt air environment exist. As a result of several recent decisions, such as not pursuing Yucca Mountain as a long-term geologic repository storage facility for UNF and the cancellation of the construction of a reprocessing facility in the 1980s due to proliferation risks, interim dry storage facilities for long-term storage are vital option for the immediate future of nuclear energy technology. One of the primary concerns with respect to the long-term performance of the storage casks is the potential for corrosion initiation due to deliquescence of salts deposited on the canister surface as aerosols; in regions of high residual weld stresses, this may lead to localized stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Dust and aerosols in the air being drawn though ventilation openings in the overpacks of passively ventilated dry canister storage systems may be deposited on the stainless-steel canister outer surfaces. Under these conditions, localized corrosion attack can occur. Chlorides ions deliquescence on the canister surface, a process by which the salts essentially pull moisture out of the air, creating a concentrated salt brine on the canister surface. Chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) of welded zones is of special concern, as it a well-documented mode of attack for austenitic stainless steels marine environments, and many independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) are located in coastal areas. Recent canister inspections have shown that chloride salts are present on the surface of in-service canisters at near-marine settings. However, canister surface inspections of satisfactory resolution to detect SCC have never been carried out in details, because access to the canister surfaces through vents in the overpacks is extremely limited, and high radiation fields make removal of the canisters from the overpacks undesirable. Although no significant corrosion damage has not been detected up to date, there is concern that this may lead to pitting corrosion, which could in turn develop into stress corrosion cracking, causing canister structural failure. The initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion has been widely studied in full immersion conditions, but limited studies have been done on marine atmospheric conditions, which is a focus of this work, these includes laboratory and field experimentally and propagation rate modeling of pitting and transition to crack, and crack propagation rate. It is known, however, that the rate of atmospheric corrosion can be affected by variations in relative humidity (RH), salt density, salt type, droplet area, temperature and stainless-steel microstructure and residual stress particularly in welded zones of canisters. The integrated research program has identified potential deterioration mechanisms for the stainless-steel canisters containing the UNF in dry storage that require detailed research and investigation and will have an impact on the performance of long-term interim storage under the normal and extreme environmental conditions experienced during the duration of this storage. The prediction and monitoring of canister corrosion processes while in storage can provide important data for the assessment of interim storage performance and the safety to the public. This report comprises of mainly the published results in different journals and covering a wide range spectrum from susceptible stainless-steel types 304\316 microstructural analysis through the implant test at atmospheric environment, residual stress analysis of mockup canister and simulation, inspection methodology includes nonlinear ultrasound and vibro-thermography and stochastic modeling and simulation of pits propagation rates and transition to cracks. Description of field specimens installed at ISFSI of Main Yankee is given in the following chapters and will be analyzed in the coming future and serves as an important data for a stochastic analysis as it was drawn from the publications and reports described in this report. The purpose of this report is to bring together the project efforts that includes improving in our understanding of structural aging performance at current dry storage casks fleet at ISFSIs in the context of remedial maintenance and inspection applications technologies.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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