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Title: From Modules to Atoms: Techniques and Characterization for Identifying and Understanding Device-Level Photovoltaic Degradation Mechanisms

Abstract

This report documents how degraded modules are analyzed for the characterization of cell-level performance reduction. The primary degradation topics presented here are 1) potential-induced degradation, 2) defect metastability and impurity diffusion, and 3) partial-shading-induced reverse-bias breakdown. Imaging techniques, such as electroluminescence imaging, photoluminescence imaging, and lock-in thermography provide spatial information of full modules on the meter scale. Area of interest can then be imaged with higher spatial resolution by zooming in with fields of view near the mm scale. We document procedures for coring cell samples from selected regions of interest using mechanical drilling. The small samples are then of suitable size for various microscopic analyses using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, electron beam induced current, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography, which can provide chemical, structural, and electrical characterization down to the atomic scale.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Bowling Green State University
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1572277
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-5K00-72541
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; photovoltaic; degradation; mechanisms; modules; cell-level

Citation Formats

Johnston, Steven, Moutinho, Helio R, Jiang, Chun Sheng, Guthrey, Harvey L, Norman, Andrew, Harvey, Stephen B, Hacke, Peter L, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Moseley, John, Sulas, Dana, Liu, Jun, Albin, David S, Nardone, Marco, and Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. From Modules to Atoms: Techniques and Characterization for Identifying and Understanding Device-Level Photovoltaic Degradation Mechanisms. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1572277.
Johnston, Steven, Moutinho, Helio R, Jiang, Chun Sheng, Guthrey, Harvey L, Norman, Andrew, Harvey, Stephen B, Hacke, Peter L, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Moseley, John, Sulas, Dana, Liu, Jun, Albin, David S, Nardone, Marco, & Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. From Modules to Atoms: Techniques and Characterization for Identifying and Understanding Device-Level Photovoltaic Degradation Mechanisms. United States. doi:10.2172/1572277.
Johnston, Steven, Moutinho, Helio R, Jiang, Chun Sheng, Guthrey, Harvey L, Norman, Andrew, Harvey, Stephen B, Hacke, Peter L, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Moseley, John, Sulas, Dana, Liu, Jun, Albin, David S, Nardone, Marco, and Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. Wed . "From Modules to Atoms: Techniques and Characterization for Identifying and Understanding Device-Level Photovoltaic Degradation Mechanisms". United States. doi:10.2172/1572277. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1572277.
@article{osti_1572277,
title = {From Modules to Atoms: Techniques and Characterization for Identifying and Understanding Device-Level Photovoltaic Degradation Mechanisms},
author = {Johnston, Steven and Moutinho, Helio R and Jiang, Chun Sheng and Guthrey, Harvey L and Norman, Andrew and Harvey, Stephen B and Hacke, Peter L and Xiao, Chuanxiao and Moseley, John and Sulas, Dana and Liu, Jun and Albin, David S and Nardone, Marco and Al-Jassim, Mowafak M},
abstractNote = {This report documents how degraded modules are analyzed for the characterization of cell-level performance reduction. The primary degradation topics presented here are 1) potential-induced degradation, 2) defect metastability and impurity diffusion, and 3) partial-shading-induced reverse-bias breakdown. Imaging techniques, such as electroluminescence imaging, photoluminescence imaging, and lock-in thermography provide spatial information of full modules on the meter scale. Area of interest can then be imaged with higher spatial resolution by zooming in with fields of view near the mm scale. We document procedures for coring cell samples from selected regions of interest using mechanical drilling. The small samples are then of suitable size for various microscopic analyses using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, electron beam induced current, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography, which can provide chemical, structural, and electrical characterization down to the atomic scale.},
doi = {10.2172/1572277},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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