skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Frequency Response Assessment and Improvement of Three Major North American Interconnections due to High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation

Abstract

As photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration increases, the inertial and primary frequency response of North American electric grids after a generation loss disturbance will decrease. This change could negatively influence North American power grids frequency stability. This project produced a series of high PV penetration models from detailed, validated base models of all three U.S. interconnections (Eastern Interconnection, Western Electricity Coordinating Council, and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) so that the effects of increased PV generation on their frequency responses can be fully quantified. Mitigation strategies were also developed and validated using both software and hardware test beds. Before the development of high PV penetration models in this project, all interconnection base models were either sanity-checked or validated using frequency measurement from the FNET/GridEye system. Four high PV penetration simulation scenarios (5%, 25%, 45%, 65% PV, plus 15% wind) were selected and the future PV geographic distribution within each interconnection were projected based on available data sources. Then the high PV penetration models were constructed using the validated interconnection models and projected PV distribution. Based on the high PV interconnection grid models, the project performed dynamic simulations using the developed models to investigate the potential frequency response change for all threemore » interconnections at different PV penetration levels. Based various simulation scenarios and results, this project characterized the potential impacts of low system inertia and decreased governor response on the frequency response metrics and related grid code compliance at both the interconnection and regional levels. To improve frequency response in high PV penetration, this work investigated the performance of utilizing various existing frequency control resources and potential load response. As PV penetration increases consistently, it becomes essential for PV to provide synthetic inertia/governor and even AGC services. To better utilizing PV to provide grid frequency support, this work studied the effects of PV synthetic inertia/governor/AGC controls on the frequency response. The PV frequency control functions were tested using the actual GE PV inverter controller and the RTDS system, the CURENT hardware testbed, and the high PV interconnection grid models. In addition, based on the high PV models, this project investigated other reliability issues in high PV penetration according to suggestions from industry reviewers. These topics include inter-area oscillation, transient stability, voltage stability, electromechanical wave propagation, and the sensitivity of PV synthetic inertia to its location.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1569649
Report Number(s):
DOE-ORNL-30844
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

Citation Formats

Liu, Yilu. Frequency Response Assessment and Improvement of Three Major North American Interconnections due to High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1569649.
Liu, Yilu. Frequency Response Assessment and Improvement of Three Major North American Interconnections due to High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1569649
Liu, Yilu. Fri . "Frequency Response Assessment and Improvement of Three Major North American Interconnections due to High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1569649. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1569649.
@article{osti_1569649,
title = {Frequency Response Assessment and Improvement of Three Major North American Interconnections due to High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation},
author = {Liu, Yilu},
abstractNote = {As photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration increases, the inertial and primary frequency response of North American electric grids after a generation loss disturbance will decrease. This change could negatively influence North American power grids frequency stability. This project produced a series of high PV penetration models from detailed, validated base models of all three U.S. interconnections (Eastern Interconnection, Western Electricity Coordinating Council, and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) so that the effects of increased PV generation on their frequency responses can be fully quantified. Mitigation strategies were also developed and validated using both software and hardware test beds. Before the development of high PV penetration models in this project, all interconnection base models were either sanity-checked or validated using frequency measurement from the FNET/GridEye system. Four high PV penetration simulation scenarios (5%, 25%, 45%, 65% PV, plus 15% wind) were selected and the future PV geographic distribution within each interconnection were projected based on available data sources. Then the high PV penetration models were constructed using the validated interconnection models and projected PV distribution. Based on the high PV interconnection grid models, the project performed dynamic simulations using the developed models to investigate the potential frequency response change for all three interconnections at different PV penetration levels. Based various simulation scenarios and results, this project characterized the potential impacts of low system inertia and decreased governor response on the frequency response metrics and related grid code compliance at both the interconnection and regional levels. To improve frequency response in high PV penetration, this work investigated the performance of utilizing various existing frequency control resources and potential load response. As PV penetration increases consistently, it becomes essential for PV to provide synthetic inertia/governor and even AGC services. To better utilizing PV to provide grid frequency support, this work studied the effects of PV synthetic inertia/governor/AGC controls on the frequency response. The PV frequency control functions were tested using the actual GE PV inverter controller and the RTDS system, the CURENT hardware testbed, and the high PV interconnection grid models. In addition, based on the high PV models, this project investigated other reliability issues in high PV penetration according to suggestions from industry reviewers. These topics include inter-area oscillation, transient stability, voltage stability, electromechanical wave propagation, and the sensitivity of PV synthetic inertia to its location.},
doi = {10.2172/1569649},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1569649}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}