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Title: Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Investigation of Scaling Effects on Reliability for Through-Silicon Vias for 3-D Integration

Abstract

Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction has been applied to TSV characterization in various studies for nondestructive inspection with submicron resolution due to its high beam intensity and penetration depth. In this paper, the application of this technique to TSV investigations is examined and the correlation of the plastic deformation to the microstructure and extrusion behavior along with the effect of TSV dimensional scaling is examined. It is shown that the variability of the copper microstructure and resulting TSV behavior requires a larger number of samples in order to report statistically significant observations. The role of the microstructure in creating statistical scatter is demonstrated through microdiffraction measurements of grain orientation correlated with the observed peak widening, which shows that degraded TSV reliability is largely due to the high elastic anisotropy of copper. After taking the statistical variations into account, the scaling effect was clearly observed, with larger plastic deformation in 2 um diameter TSVs than in 5 um diameter TSVs consistent with microstructure variations. This is confirmed by TSV extrusion measurements, which show that the magnitude and statistical spread of the via extrusion for the 2 um diameter TSVs is higher than that of the 5 um diameter TSVs. These results, validated bymore » thermomechanical simulation, demonstrate first that large sample sizes are required in copper TSV investigations due to high variability, which is not improved with scaling.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. University of Central Florida
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  4. University of Texas, Austin
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1567039
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-74996
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; synchrotron X-ray; 3D integration; TSV; reliability

Citation Formats

Spinella, Laura, Jiang, Tengfei, Tamura, Nobumichi, Im, Jang-Hi, and Ho, Paul S. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Investigation of Scaling Effects on Reliability for Through-Silicon Vias for 3-D Integration. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1109/TDMR.2019.2933794.
Spinella, Laura, Jiang, Tengfei, Tamura, Nobumichi, Im, Jang-Hi, & Ho, Paul S. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Investigation of Scaling Effects on Reliability for Through-Silicon Vias for 3-D Integration. United States. doi:10.1109/TDMR.2019.2933794.
Spinella, Laura, Jiang, Tengfei, Tamura, Nobumichi, Im, Jang-Hi, and Ho, Paul S. Tue . "Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Investigation of Scaling Effects on Reliability for Through-Silicon Vias for 3-D Integration". United States. doi:10.1109/TDMR.2019.2933794.
@article{osti_1567039,
title = {Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Investigation of Scaling Effects on Reliability for Through-Silicon Vias for 3-D Integration},
author = {Spinella, Laura and Jiang, Tengfei and Tamura, Nobumichi and Im, Jang-Hi and Ho, Paul S.},
abstractNote = {Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction has been applied to TSV characterization in various studies for nondestructive inspection with submicron resolution due to its high beam intensity and penetration depth. In this paper, the application of this technique to TSV investigations is examined and the correlation of the plastic deformation to the microstructure and extrusion behavior along with the effect of TSV dimensional scaling is examined. It is shown that the variability of the copper microstructure and resulting TSV behavior requires a larger number of samples in order to report statistically significant observations. The role of the microstructure in creating statistical scatter is demonstrated through microdiffraction measurements of grain orientation correlated with the observed peak widening, which shows that degraded TSV reliability is largely due to the high elastic anisotropy of copper. After taking the statistical variations into account, the scaling effect was clearly observed, with larger plastic deformation in 2 um diameter TSVs than in 5 um diameter TSVs consistent with microstructure variations. This is confirmed by TSV extrusion measurements, which show that the magnitude and statistical spread of the via extrusion for the 2 um diameter TSVs is higher than that of the 5 um diameter TSVs. These results, validated by thermomechanical simulation, demonstrate first that large sample sizes are required in copper TSV investigations due to high variability, which is not improved with scaling.},
doi = {10.1109/TDMR.2019.2933794},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability},
number = 3,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}