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Title: Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Lignin

Abstract

Lignin is an essential cell wall component of lignocellulose. Unlike other major components such as cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin is a noncarbohydrate biopolymer and contributes to cell wall rigidity and hydrophobicity. Lignin’s unique properties contribute to the transportation of water and minerals in plants and protect against microbial attacks, while the latter property hinders the conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulose. Also, its heterogeneity and structural complexity are major recalcitrance factors in biomass conversion. Various approaches (including genetically engineered plants, pulping, pretreatments, and fractionation processes) have been proposed to reduce and/or remove lignin for effective conversion of lignocellulose. Recently, interest in the biorefinery concept considers lignin as a potential feedstock in many applications; however, the technologies necessary to facilitate the economic production of many lignin-based products is still in its infancy. For the effective utilization of lignocellulose, understanding the physicochemical properties of lignin is the first and last step. It not only provides the key information about lignin structures in the original plant cell wall, conversion products, or residues, but also explains how the modification and/or conversion process affects lignin and biomass in general. Many different lignin characteristics, including physicochemical, morphological, and thermal properties, can be measured by diverse analytical techniques.more » This chapter introduces analytical methods that measure several essential physicochemical properties of lignin, such as molecular weights by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative and qualitative information of structural properties (interunit linkages and aromatic subunits) by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and hydroxyl group content by 31P NMR.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. State University of New York
  2. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1566969
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 1338
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yoo, Chang Geun, Ragauskas, Arthur J., and Pu, Yunqiao Joseph. Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Lignin. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/bk-2019-1338.ch003.
Yoo, Chang Geun, Ragauskas, Arthur J., & Pu, Yunqiao Joseph. Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Lignin. United States. doi:10.1021/bk-2019-1338.ch003.
Yoo, Chang Geun, Ragauskas, Arthur J., and Pu, Yunqiao Joseph. Sun . "Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Lignin". United States. doi:10.1021/bk-2019-1338.ch003.
@article{osti_1566969,
title = {Measurement of Physicochemical Properties of Lignin},
author = {Yoo, Chang Geun and Ragauskas, Arthur J. and Pu, Yunqiao Joseph},
abstractNote = {Lignin is an essential cell wall component of lignocellulose. Unlike other major components such as cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin is a noncarbohydrate biopolymer and contributes to cell wall rigidity and hydrophobicity. Lignin’s unique properties contribute to the transportation of water and minerals in plants and protect against microbial attacks, while the latter property hinders the conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulose. Also, its heterogeneity and structural complexity are major recalcitrance factors in biomass conversion. Various approaches (including genetically engineered plants, pulping, pretreatments, and fractionation processes) have been proposed to reduce and/or remove lignin for effective conversion of lignocellulose. Recently, interest in the biorefinery concept considers lignin as a potential feedstock in many applications; however, the technologies necessary to facilitate the economic production of many lignin-based products is still in its infancy. For the effective utilization of lignocellulose, understanding the physicochemical properties of lignin is the first and last step. It not only provides the key information about lignin structures in the original plant cell wall, conversion products, or residues, but also explains how the modification and/or conversion process affects lignin and biomass in general. Many different lignin characteristics, including physicochemical, morphological, and thermal properties, can be measured by diverse analytical techniques. This chapter introduces analytical methods that measure several essential physicochemical properties of lignin, such as molecular weights by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative and qualitative information of structural properties (interunit linkages and aromatic subunits) by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and hydroxyl group content by 31P NMR.},
doi = {10.1021/bk-2019-1338.ch003},
journal = {},
issn = {0097--6156},
number = ,
volume = 1338,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Book:
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