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Title: Spin–orbit torque driven by a planar Hall current

Abstract

Spin–orbit torques (SOTs) in multilayers of ferromagnetic (FM) and non-magnetic (NM) metals can manipulate the magnetization of the FM layer efficiently. This is employed, for example, in non-volatile magnetic memories for energy-efficient mobile electronics1,2 and spin torque nano-oscilla-tors3–7 for neuromorphic computing8. Recently, spin torque nano-oscillators also found use in microwave-assisted mag-netic recording, which enables ultrahigh-capacity hard disk drives9. Most SOT devices employ spin Hall10,11 and Rashba12 effects, which originate from spin–orbit coupling within the NM layer and at the FM/NM interfaces, respectively. Recently, SOTs generated by the anomalous Hall effect in FM/NM/FM multilayers were predicted13 and experimentally realized14. The control of SOTs through crystal symmetry was demonstrated as well15. Understanding all the types of SOTs that can arise in magnetic multilayers is needed for a formula-tion of a comprehensive SOT theory and for engineering prac-tical SOT devices. Here we show that a spin-polarized electric current known to give rise to anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the planar Hall effect (PHE) in a FM16 can addition-ally generate large antidamping SOTs with an unusual angu-lar symmetry in NM1/FM/NM2 multilayers. This effect can be described by a recently proposed magnonic mechanism17. Our measurements reveal that this torque can be large in multilay-ers in whichmore » both spin Hall and Rashba torques are negligible. Furthermore, we demonstrate the operation of a spin torque nano-oscillator driven by this SOT. These findings signifi-cantly expand the class of materials that exhibit giant SOTs.« less

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES); Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1566617
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0012670; SC0014467
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
phonons, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, spin dynamics, spintronics

Citation Formats

Safranski, Christopher, Montoya, Eric A., and Krivorotov, Ilya N. Spin–orbit torque driven by a planar Hall current. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0282-0.
Safranski, Christopher, Montoya, Eric A., & Krivorotov, Ilya N. Spin–orbit torque driven by a planar Hall current. United States. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0282-0.
Safranski, Christopher, Montoya, Eric A., and Krivorotov, Ilya N. Mon . "Spin–orbit torque driven by a planar Hall current". United States. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0282-0.
@article{osti_1566617,
title = {Spin–orbit torque driven by a planar Hall current},
author = {Safranski, Christopher and Montoya, Eric A. and Krivorotov, Ilya N.},
abstractNote = {Spin–orbit torques (SOTs) in multilayers of ferromagnetic (FM) and non-magnetic (NM) metals can manipulate the magnetization of the FM layer efficiently. This is employed, for example, in non-volatile magnetic memories for energy-efficient mobile electronics1,2 and spin torque nano-oscilla-tors3–7 for neuromorphic computing8. Recently, spin torque nano-oscillators also found use in microwave-assisted mag-netic recording, which enables ultrahigh-capacity hard disk drives9. Most SOT devices employ spin Hall10,11 and Rashba12 effects, which originate from spin–orbit coupling within the NM layer and at the FM/NM interfaces, respectively. Recently, SOTs generated by the anomalous Hall effect in FM/NM/FM multilayers were predicted13 and experimentally realized14. The control of SOTs through crystal symmetry was demonstrated as well15. Understanding all the types of SOTs that can arise in magnetic multilayers is needed for a formula-tion of a comprehensive SOT theory and for engineering prac-tical SOT devices. Here we show that a spin-polarized electric current known to give rise to anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the planar Hall effect (PHE) in a FM16 can addition-ally generate large antidamping SOTs with an unusual angu-lar symmetry in NM1/FM/NM2 multilayers. This effect can be described by a recently proposed magnonic mechanism17. Our measurements reveal that this torque can be large in multilay-ers in which both spin Hall and Rashba torques are negligible. Furthermore, we demonstrate the operation of a spin torque nano-oscillator driven by this SOT. These findings signifi-cantly expand the class of materials that exhibit giant SOTs.},
doi = {10.1038/s41565-018-0282-0},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
issn = {1748-3387},
number = 1,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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