skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Passive directional sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling

Abstract

Demonstrations of passive daytime radiative cooling have primarily relied on complex and costly spectrally selective nanophotonic structures with high emissivity in the transparent atmospheric spectral window and high reflectivity in the solar spectrum. Here, we show a directional approach to passive radiative cooling that exploits the angular confinement of solar irradiation in the sky to achieve sub-ambient cooling during the day regardless of the emitter properties in the solar spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate this approach using a setup comprising a polished aluminum disk that reflects direct solar irradiation and a white infrared-transparent polyethylene convection cover that minimizes diffuse solar irradiation. Measurements performed around solar noon show a minimum temperature of 6 °C below ambient temperature and maximum cooling power of 45 W m –2. Our passive cooling approach, realized using commonly available low-cost materials, could improve the performance of existing cooling systems and enable next-generation thermal management and refrigeration solutions.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1566605
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001299
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; solar (photovoltaic); solar (thermal); solid state lighting; phonons; thermal conductivity; thermoelectric; defects; mechanical behavior; charge transport; spin dynamics; materials and chemistry by design; optics; synthesis (novel materials); synthesis (self-assembly); synthesis (scalable processing)

Citation Formats

Bhatia, Bikram, Leroy, Arny, Shen, Yichen, Zhao, Lin, Gianello, Melissa, Li, Duanhui, Gu, Tian, Hu, Juejun, Soljačić, Marin, and Wang, Evelyn N. Passive directional sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07293-9.
Bhatia, Bikram, Leroy, Arny, Shen, Yichen, Zhao, Lin, Gianello, Melissa, Li, Duanhui, Gu, Tian, Hu, Juejun, Soljačić, Marin, & Wang, Evelyn N. Passive directional sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07293-9.
Bhatia, Bikram, Leroy, Arny, Shen, Yichen, Zhao, Lin, Gianello, Melissa, Li, Duanhui, Gu, Tian, Hu, Juejun, Soljačić, Marin, and Wang, Evelyn N. Tue . "Passive directional sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07293-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566605.
@article{osti_1566605,
title = {Passive directional sub-ambient daytime radiative cooling},
author = {Bhatia, Bikram and Leroy, Arny and Shen, Yichen and Zhao, Lin and Gianello, Melissa and Li, Duanhui and Gu, Tian and Hu, Juejun and Soljačić, Marin and Wang, Evelyn N.},
abstractNote = {Demonstrations of passive daytime radiative cooling have primarily relied on complex and costly spectrally selective nanophotonic structures with high emissivity in the transparent atmospheric spectral window and high reflectivity in the solar spectrum. Here, we show a directional approach to passive radiative cooling that exploits the angular confinement of solar irradiation in the sky to achieve sub-ambient cooling during the day regardless of the emitter properties in the solar spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate this approach using a setup comprising a polished aluminum disk that reflects direct solar irradiation and a white infrared-transparent polyethylene convection cover that minimizes diffuse solar irradiation. Measurements performed around solar noon show a minimum temperature of 6 °C below ambient temperature and maximum cooling power of 45 W m–2. Our passive cooling approach, realized using commonly available low-cost materials, could improve the performance of existing cooling systems and enable next-generation thermal management and refrigeration solutions.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-07293-9},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 13 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications
journal, July 2017


A review of clear sky radiative cooling developments and applications in renewable power systems and passive building cooling
journal, May 2018


Radiative Cooling: Principles, Progress, and Potentials
journal, February 2016


Radiative cooling efficiency of white pigmented paints
journal, June 1993


Optimized cool roofs: Integrating albedo and thermal emittance with R-value
journal, December 2011

  • Gentle, A. R.; Aguilar, J. L. C.; Smith, G. B.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 95, Issue 12, p. 3207-3215
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.07.018

3D printable optical structures for sub-ambient sky cooling
conference, September 2017

  • Gentle, Angus R.; Nuhoglu, Altay; Arnold, Matthew D.
  • Thermal Radiation Management for Energy Applications
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.2274568

Review of solar and low energy cooling technologies for buildings
journal, December 2002


Metamaterial broadband angular selectivity
journal, September 2014


A solar reflecting material for radiative cooling applications: ZnS pigmented polyethylene
journal, November 1992

  • Nilsson, Torbjörn M. J.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 28, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0927-0248(92)90010-M

Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight
journal, November 2014

  • Raman, Aaswath P.; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao
  • Nature, Vol. 515, Issue 7528, p. 540-544
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13883

Passive cooling of water at night in uninsulated open tank in hot arid areas
journal, January 2007


A New Shadow-Ring Device for Measuring Diffuse Solar Radiation at the Surface
journal, May 2002


Double-layer nanoparticle-based coatings for efficient terrestrial radiative cooling
journal, August 2017


Nanoparticle embedded double-layer coating for daytime radiative cooling
journal, January 2017


Light selective structures for large scale natural air conditioning
journal, January 1980


Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance
journal, January 1988


Solar refrigeration options – a state-of-the-art review
journal, January 2008


Broadband angular selectivity of light at the nanoscale: Progress, applications, and outlook
journal, February 2016

  • Shen, Yichen; Hsu, Chia Wei; Yeng, Yi Xiang
  • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4941257

Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling
journal, February 2017


Review of passive solar heating and cooling technologies
journal, February 2010

  • Chan, Hoy-Yen; Riffat, Saffa B.; Zhu, Jie
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.030

Effective Radiative Cooling by Paint-Format Microsphere-Based Photonic Random Media
journal, January 2018


Radiative cooling: Energy savings from the sky
journal, September 2017


Sub-ambient non-evaporative fluid cooling with the sky
journal, September 2017


Thermal performance of radiative cooling panels
journal, June 1983

  • Berdahl, P.; Martin, M.; Sakkal, F.
  • International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 26, Issue 6, p. 871-880
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0017-9310(83)80111-2

Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile
journal, September 2016


A Comprehensive Photonic Approach for Solar Cell Cooling
journal, March 2017


Radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers
journal, January 1984


Radiative cooling to low temperatures: General considerations and application to selectively emitting SiO films
journal, June 1981

  • Granqvist, C. G.; Hjortsberg, A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 52, Issue 6, p. 4205-4220
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.329270

Ultrabroadband Photonic Structures To Achieve High-Performance Daytime Radiative Cooling
journal, March 2013

  • Rephaeli, Eden; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 4, p. 1457-1461
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4004283

Radiative cooling of solar cells
journal, January 2014


Angle-Selective Reflective Filters for Exclusion of Background Thermal Emission
journal, April 2017


Daytime Radiative Cooling Using Near-Black Infrared Emitters
journal, February 2017


Radiative cooling during the day: simulations and experiments on pigmented polyethylene cover foils
journal, April 1995

  • Nilsson, Torbjörn M. J.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 37, Issue 1, p. 93-118
  • DOI: 10.1016/0927-0248(94)00200-2

Amplified radiative cooling via optimised combinations of aperture geometry and spectral emittance profiles of surfaces and the atmosphere
journal, September 2009


Optical Broadband Angular Selectivity
journal, March 2014


Nocturnal and diurnal performances of selective radiators
journal, October 1977


Evacuated-tube directional-radiating cooling system
journal, January 1985