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Title: Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems

Abstract

Fostered by advances in computing, simulation and data science have emerged as the third and fourth paradigms enabling scientific discovery. Many mathematical challenges arise when integrating these paradigms to produce new knowledge. One of the most important challenges is the inverse or calibration problem: find the inputs of a simulation such that its outputs agree with a given set of measurements. As both the cost of the complex simulations and the volume of measurement data sets increase, intuition-driven trial-and-error methods for calibration quickly become untenable; modern scientists need more computationally efficient and mathematically rigorous methods. When measurements and simulated predictions contain uncertainty, the Bayesian perspective on statistical inference provides a popular mathematical framework for developing computational methods to solve inverse problems. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are a mainstay of this framework; they characterize a probability distribution on the space of model inputs that is conditioned on the given measurements. However, despite recent advances, MCMC methods remain impractical for expensive simulations with more than a handful of inputs. At its heart, MCMC searches the space of inputs for corresponding outputs that match measurements, and so it is afflicted with the curse of dimensionality. Additionally, MCMC methods become less efficientmore » as the volume of the measurement data increases, particularly if the measurements are redundant. To make MCMC—and Bayesian methods, in general—amenable to today’s computer models with millions of inputs and terabytes of measurement data, one must devise methods to reduce the dimension of both the simulation inputs and the measurements. For many models used in practice, the outputs vary primarily on a low-dimensional manifold of the nominally high-dimensional input space. Recently developed active subspace methods discover this low-dimensional manifold and exploit it to enable analyses typically suited for low-dimensional settings (e.g., statistical inversion of complex systems). We hypothesize that active subspace methods can provide the necessary dimension reduction, enabling existing Bayesian methods to find solutions for a large class of otherwise intractable statistical inverse problems. We will test the hypothesis with a series of mathematical analyses and computational experiments that will proceed along three research veins: (i) integrating active subspace methods into methods for statistical inversion, (ii) addressing current challenges in active subspace methods, and (iii) incorporating methods for nonlinear dimensionality reduction into active subspace methods. We will apply the methods we develop to real inverse problems in chemical kinetics and turbulent flame modeling. Our team combines expertise in methods for inverse problems, dimension reduction, and reduced order modeling. With a history of active collaboration and thoughtful engagement, we bring enthusiasm and fresh perspectives to a well studied subject. We are excited by the potential opportunity to work together to extend and apply active subspace methods to data-intensive inverse problems.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1566065
Report Number(s):
DOE-UTAustin-SC0011118
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0011077
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; Active subspaces, Bayesian inverse problems, big data

Citation Formats

Constantine, Paul. Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1566065.
Constantine, Paul. Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems. United States. doi:10.2172/1566065.
Constantine, Paul. Wed . "Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems". United States. doi:10.2172/1566065. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566065.
@article{osti_1566065,
title = {Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems},
author = {Constantine, Paul},
abstractNote = {Fostered by advances in computing, simulation and data science have emerged as the third and fourth paradigms enabling scientific discovery. Many mathematical challenges arise when integrating these paradigms to produce new knowledge. One of the most important challenges is the inverse or calibration problem: find the inputs of a simulation such that its outputs agree with a given set of measurements. As both the cost of the complex simulations and the volume of measurement data sets increase, intuition-driven trial-and-error methods for calibration quickly become untenable; modern scientists need more computationally efficient and mathematically rigorous methods. When measurements and simulated predictions contain uncertainty, the Bayesian perspective on statistical inference provides a popular mathematical framework for developing computational methods to solve inverse problems. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are a mainstay of this framework; they characterize a probability distribution on the space of model inputs that is conditioned on the given measurements. However, despite recent advances, MCMC methods remain impractical for expensive simulations with more than a handful of inputs. At its heart, MCMC searches the space of inputs for corresponding outputs that match measurements, and so it is afflicted with the curse of dimensionality. Additionally, MCMC methods become less efficient as the volume of the measurement data increases, particularly if the measurements are redundant. To make MCMC—and Bayesian methods, in general—amenable to today’s computer models with millions of inputs and terabytes of measurement data, one must devise methods to reduce the dimension of both the simulation inputs and the measurements. For many models used in practice, the outputs vary primarily on a low-dimensional manifold of the nominally high-dimensional input space. Recently developed active subspace methods discover this low-dimensional manifold and exploit it to enable analyses typically suited for low-dimensional settings (e.g., statistical inversion of complex systems). We hypothesize that active subspace methods can provide the necessary dimension reduction, enabling existing Bayesian methods to find solutions for a large class of otherwise intractable statistical inverse problems. We will test the hypothesis with a series of mathematical analyses and computational experiments that will proceed along three research veins: (i) integrating active subspace methods into methods for statistical inversion, (ii) addressing current challenges in active subspace methods, and (iii) incorporating methods for nonlinear dimensionality reduction into active subspace methods. We will apply the methods we develop to real inverse problems in chemical kinetics and turbulent flame modeling. Our team combines expertise in methods for inverse problems, dimension reduction, and reduced order modeling. With a history of active collaboration and thoughtful engagement, we bring enthusiasm and fresh perspectives to a well studied subject. We are excited by the potential opportunity to work together to extend and apply active subspace methods to data-intensive inverse problems.},
doi = {10.2172/1566065},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}