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Title: A Comprehensive Methodology to Evaluate Losses and Process Variations in Silicon Solar Cell Manufacturing

Abstract

Novel, high-throughput metrology methods are used in this paper for detailed performance loss analysis of approximately 400 industrial crystalline silicon solar cells, all coming from the same production line. The characterization sequence combines traditional global cell measurements (e.g., current-voltage, Suns-VOC) with camera-based cell imaging of voltage distribution and power dissipation from photoluminescence and lock-in thermography, respectively. Spatial variations in current collection are visualized using a high-speed external quantum efficiency and reflectance measurement technique. A nondestructive transfer length method (TLM) measurement technique is also implemented, featuring circular TLM structures hidden within the busbars of the cells. The variance of individual loss parameters and their impact on cell performance are quantified for this large group of cells. Based on correlations performed across parameters, recombination losses in the bulk and rear surface of the cell are shown to be the primary limiting factor for the cell efficiency. The nature of these distributions and correlations provide important insights about loss mechanisms in industrial solar cells, helping to prioritize efforts for optimizing the performance of the production line. Additionally, many of the parameters extracted from these techniques can be tied back to incoming material quality issues (e.g., poor bulk carrier lifetime, nonuniform wafer doping) andmore » to individual unit processes (e.g., texturing, phosphorus diffusion, silicon nitride deposition, metallization), allowing the data to be used directly for process control in manufacturing. All of the datasets are made available for download.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [1]
  1. University of Central Florida
  2. BrightSpot Automation
  3. Sinton Instruments
  4. Foshan University
  5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1566055
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-74934
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 42 ENGINEERING; absorption; current measurement; contact resistance; loss measurement; optical losses; photoluminescence; semiconductor device manufacture; semiconductor materials; semiconductor device testing; silicon; silicon photonics; solar energy

Citation Formats

Hossain, Mohammad Jobayer, Gregory, Geoffrey, Schneller, Eric John, Gabor, Andrew M., Blum, Adrienne L., Yang, Zhihao, Sulas, Dana, Johnston, Steven, and Davis, Kristopher Olan. A Comprehensive Methodology to Evaluate Losses and Process Variations in Silicon Solar Cell Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2926628.
Hossain, Mohammad Jobayer, Gregory, Geoffrey, Schneller, Eric John, Gabor, Andrew M., Blum, Adrienne L., Yang, Zhihao, Sulas, Dana, Johnston, Steven, & Davis, Kristopher Olan. A Comprehensive Methodology to Evaluate Losses and Process Variations in Silicon Solar Cell Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2926628.
Hossain, Mohammad Jobayer, Gregory, Geoffrey, Schneller, Eric John, Gabor, Andrew M., Blum, Adrienne L., Yang, Zhihao, Sulas, Dana, Johnston, Steven, and Davis, Kristopher Olan. Mon . "A Comprehensive Methodology to Evaluate Losses and Process Variations in Silicon Solar Cell Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2926628.
@article{osti_1566055,
title = {A Comprehensive Methodology to Evaluate Losses and Process Variations in Silicon Solar Cell Manufacturing},
author = {Hossain, Mohammad Jobayer and Gregory, Geoffrey and Schneller, Eric John and Gabor, Andrew M. and Blum, Adrienne L. and Yang, Zhihao and Sulas, Dana and Johnston, Steven and Davis, Kristopher Olan},
abstractNote = {Novel, high-throughput metrology methods are used in this paper for detailed performance loss analysis of approximately 400 industrial crystalline silicon solar cells, all coming from the same production line. The characterization sequence combines traditional global cell measurements (e.g., current-voltage, Suns-VOC) with camera-based cell imaging of voltage distribution and power dissipation from photoluminescence and lock-in thermography, respectively. Spatial variations in current collection are visualized using a high-speed external quantum efficiency and reflectance measurement technique. A nondestructive transfer length method (TLM) measurement technique is also implemented, featuring circular TLM structures hidden within the busbars of the cells. The variance of individual loss parameters and their impact on cell performance are quantified for this large group of cells. Based on correlations performed across parameters, recombination losses in the bulk and rear surface of the cell are shown to be the primary limiting factor for the cell efficiency. The nature of these distributions and correlations provide important insights about loss mechanisms in industrial solar cells, helping to prioritize efforts for optimizing the performance of the production line. Additionally, many of the parameters extracted from these techniques can be tied back to incoming material quality issues (e.g., poor bulk carrier lifetime, nonuniform wafer doping) and to individual unit processes (e.g., texturing, phosphorus diffusion, silicon nitride deposition, metallization), allowing the data to be used directly for process control in manufacturing. All of the datasets are made available for download.},
doi = {10.1109/JPHOTOV.2019.2926628},
journal = {IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics},
number = 5,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
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This content will become publicly available on August 5, 2020
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