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Title: Observation of the Crab Nebula with the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory

Abstract

The Crab Nebula is the brightest TeV gamma-ray source in the sky and has been used for the past 25 years as a reference source in TeV astronomy, for calibration and verification of new TeV instruments. Similarly, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), completed in early 2015, has been used to observe the Crab Nebula at high significance across nearly the full spectrum of energies to which HAWC is sensitive. HAWC is unique for its wide field of view, nearly 2 sr at any instant, and its high-energy reach, up to 100 TeV. HAWC's sensitivity improves with the gamma-ray energy. Above ~1 TeV the sensitivity is driven by the best background rejection and angular resolution ever achieved for a wide-field ground array. Here, we introduce a time-integrated analysis of the Crab using 507 live days of HAWC data from 2014 November to 2016 June. The spectrum of the Crab is fit to a function of the form $$\phi {(E)={\phi }_{0}(E/{E}_{0})}^{-\alpha -\beta \cdot \mathrm{ln}(E/{E}_{0})}$$. The data is well fitted with values of α = 2.63 ± 0.03, β = 0.15 ± 0.03, and $${\mathrm{log}}_{10}({\phi }_{0}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}\,{\rm{s}}\,\mathrm{TeV})=-12.60\pm 0.02$$ when E 0 is fixed at 7 TeV and the fit applies between 1 and 37 TeV. Study of the systematic errors in this HAWC measurement is discussed and estimated to be ±50% in the photon flux between 1 and 37 TeV. Confirmation of the Crab flux serves to establish the HAWC instrument's sensitivity for surveys of the sky. The HAWC all-sky survey will be the deepest survey of the northern sky ever conducted in the multi-TeV band.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Org.:
HAWC Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1565859
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-29820
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 843; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; acceleration of particles; gamma rays: general; ISM: individual objects (Crab Nebula)

Citation Formats

Abeysekara, A. U., Albert, A., Alfaro, R., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., Arceo, R., Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C., Solares, H. A. Ayala, Barber, A. S., Bautista-Elivar, N., Becerril, A., Belmont-Moreno, E., BenZvi, S. Y., Berley, D., Braun, J., Brisbois, C., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Capistrán, T., Carramiñana, A., Casanova, S., Castillo, M., Cotti, U., Cotzomi, J., León, S. Coutiño de, Fuente, E. de la, León, C. De, DeYoung, T., Dingus, B. L., DuVernois, M. A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Ellsworth, R. W., Fiorino, D. W., Fraija, N., García-González, J. A., Gerhardt, M., Munöz, A. González, González, M. M., Goodman, J. A., Hampel-Arias, Z., Harding, J. P., Hernandez, S., Hernandez-Almada, A., Hinton, J., Hui, C. M., Hüntemeyer, P., Iriarte, A., Jardin-Blicq, A., Joshi, V., Kaufmann, S., Kieda, D., Lara, A., Lauer, R. J., Lee, W. H., Lennarz, D., Vargas, H. León, Linnemann, J. T., Longinotti, A. L., Raya, G. Luis, Luna-García, R., López-Coto, R., Malone, K., Marinelli, S. S., Martinez, O., Martinez-Castellanos, I., Martínez-Castro, J., Martínez-Huerta, H., Matthews, J. A., Miranda-Romagnoli, P., Moreno, E., Mostafá, M., Nellen, L., Newbold, M., Nisa, M. U., Noriega-Papaqui, R., Pelayo, R., Pretz, J., Pérez-Pérez, E. G., Ren, Z., Rho, C. D., Rivière, C., Rosa-González, D., Rosenberg, M., Ruiz-Velasco, E., Salazar, H., Greus, F. Salesa, Sandoval, A., Schneider, M., Schoorlemmer, H., Sinnis, G., Smith, A. J., Springer, R. W., Surajbali, P., Taboada, I., Tibolla, O., Tollefson, K., Torres, I., Ukwatta, T. N., Villaseñor, L., Weisgarber, T., Westerhoff, S., Wisher, I. G., Wood, J., Yapici, T., Yodh, G. B., Younk, P. W., Zepeda, A., and Zhou, H. Observation of the Crab Nebula with the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7555.
Abeysekara, A. U., Albert, A., Alfaro, R., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., Arceo, R., Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C., Solares, H. A. Ayala, Barber, A. S., Bautista-Elivar, N., Becerril, A., Belmont-Moreno, E., BenZvi, S. Y., Berley, D., Braun, J., Brisbois, C., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Capistrán, T., Carramiñana, A., Casanova, S., Castillo, M., Cotti, U., Cotzomi, J., León, S. Coutiño de, Fuente, E. de la, León, C. De, DeYoung, T., Dingus, B. L., DuVernois, M. A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Ellsworth, R. W., Fiorino, D. W., Fraija, N., García-González, J. A., Gerhardt, M., Munöz, A. González, González, M. M., Goodman, J. A., Hampel-Arias, Z., Harding, J. P., Hernandez, S., Hernandez-Almada, A., Hinton, J., Hui, C. M., Hüntemeyer, P., Iriarte, A., Jardin-Blicq, A., Joshi, V., Kaufmann, S., Kieda, D., Lara, A., Lauer, R. J., Lee, W. H., Lennarz, D., Vargas, H. León, Linnemann, J. T., Longinotti, A. L., Raya, G. Luis, Luna-García, R., López-Coto, R., Malone, K., Marinelli, S. S., Martinez, O., Martinez-Castellanos, I., Martínez-Castro, J., Martínez-Huerta, H., Matthews, J. A., Miranda-Romagnoli, P., Moreno, E., Mostafá, M., Nellen, L., Newbold, M., Nisa, M. U., Noriega-Papaqui, R., Pelayo, R., Pretz, J., Pérez-Pérez, E. G., Ren, Z., Rho, C. D., Rivière, C., Rosa-González, D., Rosenberg, M., Ruiz-Velasco, E., Salazar, H., Greus, F. Salesa, Sandoval, A., Schneider, M., Schoorlemmer, H., Sinnis, G., Smith, A. J., Springer, R. W., Surajbali, P., Taboada, I., Tibolla, O., Tollefson, K., Torres, I., Ukwatta, T. N., Villaseñor, L., Weisgarber, T., Westerhoff, S., Wisher, I. G., Wood, J., Yapici, T., Yodh, G. B., Younk, P. W., Zepeda, A., & Zhou, H. Observation of the Crab Nebula with the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7555.
Abeysekara, A. U., Albert, A., Alfaro, R., Alvarez, C., Álvarez, J. D., Arceo, R., Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C., Solares, H. A. Ayala, Barber, A. S., Bautista-Elivar, N., Becerril, A., Belmont-Moreno, E., BenZvi, S. Y., Berley, D., Braun, J., Brisbois, C., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Capistrán, T., Carramiñana, A., Casanova, S., Castillo, M., Cotti, U., Cotzomi, J., León, S. Coutiño de, Fuente, E. de la, León, C. De, DeYoung, T., Dingus, B. L., DuVernois, M. A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Ellsworth, R. W., Fiorino, D. W., Fraija, N., García-González, J. A., Gerhardt, M., Munöz, A. González, González, M. M., Goodman, J. A., Hampel-Arias, Z., Harding, J. P., Hernandez, S., Hernandez-Almada, A., Hinton, J., Hui, C. M., Hüntemeyer, P., Iriarte, A., Jardin-Blicq, A., Joshi, V., Kaufmann, S., Kieda, D., Lara, A., Lauer, R. J., Lee, W. H., Lennarz, D., Vargas, H. León, Linnemann, J. T., Longinotti, A. L., Raya, G. Luis, Luna-García, R., López-Coto, R., Malone, K., Marinelli, S. S., Martinez, O., Martinez-Castellanos, I., Martínez-Castro, J., Martínez-Huerta, H., Matthews, J. A., Miranda-Romagnoli, P., Moreno, E., Mostafá, M., Nellen, L., Newbold, M., Nisa, M. U., Noriega-Papaqui, R., Pelayo, R., Pretz, J., Pérez-Pérez, E. G., Ren, Z., Rho, C. D., Rivière, C., Rosa-González, D., Rosenberg, M., Ruiz-Velasco, E., Salazar, H., Greus, F. Salesa, Sandoval, A., Schneider, M., Schoorlemmer, H., Sinnis, G., Smith, A. J., Springer, R. W., Surajbali, P., Taboada, I., Tibolla, O., Tollefson, K., Torres, I., Ukwatta, T. N., Villaseñor, L., Weisgarber, T., Westerhoff, S., Wisher, I. G., Wood, J., Yapici, T., Yodh, G. B., Younk, P. W., Zepeda, A., and Zhou, H. Thu . "Observation of the Crab Nebula with the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7555. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565859.
@article{osti_1565859,
title = {Observation of the Crab Nebula with the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory},
author = {Abeysekara, A. U. and Albert, A. and Alfaro, R. and Alvarez, C. and Álvarez, J. D. and Arceo, R. and Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. and Solares, H. A. Ayala and Barber, A. S. and Bautista-Elivar, N. and Becerril, A. and Belmont-Moreno, E. and BenZvi, S. Y. and Berley, D. and Braun, J. and Brisbois, C. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Capistrán, T. and Carramiñana, A. and Casanova, S. and Castillo, M. and Cotti, U. and Cotzomi, J. and León, S. Coutiño de and Fuente, E. de la and León, C. De and DeYoung, T. and Dingus, B. L. and DuVernois, M. A. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Ellsworth, R. W. and Fiorino, D. W. and Fraija, N. and García-González, J. A. and Gerhardt, M. and Munöz, A. González and González, M. M. and Goodman, J. A. and Hampel-Arias, Z. and Harding, J. P. and Hernandez, S. and Hernandez-Almada, A. and Hinton, J. and Hui, C. M. and Hüntemeyer, P. and Iriarte, A. and Jardin-Blicq, A. and Joshi, V. and Kaufmann, S. and Kieda, D. and Lara, A. and Lauer, R. J. and Lee, W. H. and Lennarz, D. and Vargas, H. León and Linnemann, J. T. and Longinotti, A. L. and Raya, G. Luis and Luna-García, R. and López-Coto, R. and Malone, K. and Marinelli, S. S. and Martinez, O. and Martinez-Castellanos, I. and Martínez-Castro, J. and Martínez-Huerta, H. and Matthews, J. A. and Miranda-Romagnoli, P. and Moreno, E. and Mostafá, M. and Nellen, L. and Newbold, M. and Nisa, M. U. and Noriega-Papaqui, R. and Pelayo, R. and Pretz, J. and Pérez-Pérez, E. G. and Ren, Z. and Rho, C. D. and Rivière, C. and Rosa-González, D. and Rosenberg, M. and Ruiz-Velasco, E. and Salazar, H. and Greus, F. Salesa and Sandoval, A. and Schneider, M. and Schoorlemmer, H. and Sinnis, G. and Smith, A. J. and Springer, R. W. and Surajbali, P. and Taboada, I. and Tibolla, O. and Tollefson, K. and Torres, I. and Ukwatta, T. N. and Villaseñor, L. and Weisgarber, T. and Westerhoff, S. and Wisher, I. G. and Wood, J. and Yapici, T. and Yodh, G. B. and Younk, P. W. and Zepeda, A. and Zhou, H.},
abstractNote = {The Crab Nebula is the brightest TeV gamma-ray source in the sky and has been used for the past 25 years as a reference source in TeV astronomy, for calibration and verification of new TeV instruments. Similarly, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), completed in early 2015, has been used to observe the Crab Nebula at high significance across nearly the full spectrum of energies to which HAWC is sensitive. HAWC is unique for its wide field of view, nearly 2 sr at any instant, and its high-energy reach, up to 100 TeV. HAWC's sensitivity improves with the gamma-ray energy. Above ~1 TeV the sensitivity is driven by the best background rejection and angular resolution ever achieved for a wide-field ground array. Here, we introduce a time-integrated analysis of the Crab using 507 live days of HAWC data from 2014 November to 2016 June. The spectrum of the Crab is fit to a function of the form $\phi {(E)={\phi }_{0}(E/{E}_{0})}^{-\alpha -\beta \cdot \mathrm{ln}(E/{E}_{0})}$. The data is well fitted with values of α = 2.63 ± 0.03, β = 0.15 ± 0.03, and ${\mathrm{log}}_{10}({\phi }_{0}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}\,{\rm{s}}\,\mathrm{TeV})=-12.60\pm 0.02$ when E 0 is fixed at 7 TeV and the fit applies between 1 and 37 TeV. Study of the systematic errors in this HAWC measurement is discussed and estimated to be ±50% in the photon flux between 1 and 37 TeV. Confirmation of the Crab flux serves to establish the HAWC instrument's sensitivity for surveys of the sky. The HAWC all-sky survey will be the deepest survey of the northern sky ever conducted in the multi-TeV band.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aa7555},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 1,
volume = 843,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}

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