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Title: The Current State of High-Fidelity Simulations for Main Gas Path Turbomachinery Components and Their Industrial Impact

Abstract

High-fidelity simulations have become feasible for most main gas path turbomachinery components, over the past two decades. This paper introduces the key challenges of simulating and modelling turbomachinery flows and presents an overview of possible simulation strategies. A comprehensive overview is given of which particular design challenges have to date been addressed by high-fidelity simulations, with a particular focus on high-pressure and centrifugal compressors, and high-pressure and low-pressure turbines. Recommendations are provided for how quality and accuracy can be ensured for high-fidelity simulations, using direct numerical simulations of a low-pressure turbine as a case study. It is argued that industrial impact from high-fidelity simulations can be achieved in two ways, either by conducting design-of-experiment-like studies that can provide designers with insight into certain physical mechanisms and phenomena, or by helping mature and improve lower-order models. The latter is discussed with particular emphasis on recent advances in machine learning for model assessment and improvement, and the potential of one selected data-driven approach is demonstrated on predictions of wake mixing for low-pressure and high-pressure turbines.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Melborne (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Baker Hughes, Florence (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1565717
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Flow, Turbulence and Combustion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 102; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1386-6184
Publisher:
European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence and Combustion (ERCOFTAC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Thermodynamics; Mechanics

Citation Formats

Sandberg, Richard D., and Michelassi, Vittorio. The Current State of High-Fidelity Simulations for Main Gas Path Turbomachinery Components and Their Industrial Impact. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s10494-019-00013-3.
Sandberg, Richard D., & Michelassi, Vittorio. The Current State of High-Fidelity Simulations for Main Gas Path Turbomachinery Components and Their Industrial Impact. United States. doi:10.1007/s10494-019-00013-3.
Sandberg, Richard D., and Michelassi, Vittorio. Fri . "The Current State of High-Fidelity Simulations for Main Gas Path Turbomachinery Components and Their Industrial Impact". United States. doi:10.1007/s10494-019-00013-3.
@article{osti_1565717,
title = {The Current State of High-Fidelity Simulations for Main Gas Path Turbomachinery Components and Their Industrial Impact},
author = {Sandberg, Richard D. and Michelassi, Vittorio},
abstractNote = {High-fidelity simulations have become feasible for most main gas path turbomachinery components, over the past two decades. This paper introduces the key challenges of simulating and modelling turbomachinery flows and presents an overview of possible simulation strategies. A comprehensive overview is given of which particular design challenges have to date been addressed by high-fidelity simulations, with a particular focus on high-pressure and centrifugal compressors, and high-pressure and low-pressure turbines. Recommendations are provided for how quality and accuracy can be ensured for high-fidelity simulations, using direct numerical simulations of a low-pressure turbine as a case study. It is argued that industrial impact from high-fidelity simulations can be achieved in two ways, either by conducting design-of-experiment-like studies that can provide designers with insight into certain physical mechanisms and phenomena, or by helping mature and improve lower-order models. The latter is discussed with particular emphasis on recent advances in machine learning for model assessment and improvement, and the potential of one selected data-driven approach is demonstrated on predictions of wake mixing for low-pressure and high-pressure turbines.},
doi = {10.1007/s10494-019-00013-3},
journal = {Flow, Turbulence and Combustion},
issn = {1386-6184},
number = 4,
volume = 102,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4029363

A Test Case for the Numerical Investigation of Wake Passing Effects on a Highly Loaded LP Turbine Cascade Blade
conference, July 2014

  • Stadtmüller, Peter; Fottner, Leonhard
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2001: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Volume 1: Aircraft Engine; Marine; Turbomachinery; Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery
  • DOI: 10.1115/2001-GT-0311

DNS of fully turbulent flow in a LPT passage
journal, August 2003

  • Kalitzin, Georgi; Wu, Xiaohua; Durbin, Paul A.
  • International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0142-727X(03)00057-2

Simple Eulerian time correlation of full-and narrow-band velocity signals in grid-generated, ‘isotropic’ turbulence
journal, July 1971


Experiments on transitional boundary layers with wake-induced unsteadiness
journal, October 1991


Unsteady Wake-Induced Boundary Layer Transition in High Lift LP Turbines
journal, January 1998

  • Schulte, V.; Hodson, H. P.
  • Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.2841384

Turbulence properties in the cylinder wake at high Reynolds numbers
journal, August 2006


Direct Numerical Simulation, Theories and Modelling of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients
journal, June 2015

  • Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.
  • Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol. 95, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10494-015-9621-5

Structure of large-scale vorticity in a turbulent far wake
journal, September 1990


Direct numerical simulation of the early development of a turbulent mixing layer downstream of a splitter plate
journal, January 2009


Blade Row Interaction in a Multistage Low-Pressure Turbine
journal, January 1993


Accurate Prediction of Loss Using High Fidelity Methods
conference, August 2018

  • Przytarski, Pawel J.; Wheeler, Andrew P. S.
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Volume 2C: Turbomachinery
  • DOI: 10.1115/GT2018-77125

Reynolds-stress and dissipation-rate budgets in a turbulent channel flow
journal, September 1988


One-Equation Near-Wall Turbulence Modeling With the Aid of Direct Simulation Data
journal, June 1993

  • Rodi, W.; Mansour, N. N.; Michelassi, V.
  • Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 115, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.2910124

Turbulence statistics in fully developed channel flow at low Reynolds number
journal, April 1987


Transport Equations in Turbulence
journal, January 1970


Philosophies and fallacies in turbulence modeling
journal, April 2015


The development of algebraic stress models using a novel evolutionary algorithm
journal, December 2017


About Boussinesq's turbulent viscosity hypothesis: historical remarks and a direct evaluation of its validity
journal, September 2007


Direct Simulation and RANS Modelling of a Vortex Generator Flow
journal, June 2015

  • Spalart, P. R.; Shur, M. L.; Strelets, M. Kh.
  • Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol. 95, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10494-015-9610-8

Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging
journal, October 2014


Turbulence Modeling in the Age of Data
journal, January 2019


Reynolds averaged turbulence modelling using deep neural networks with embedded invariance
journal, October 2016

  • Ling, Julia; Kurzawski, Andrew; Templeton, Jeremy
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 807
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2016.615

A Machine Learning Approach for Determining the Turbulent Diffusivity in Film Cooling Flows
journal, December 2017

  • Milani, Pedro M.; Ling, Julia; Saez-Mischlich, Gonzalo
  • Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 140, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4038275

A paradigm for data-driven predictive modeling using field inversion and machine learning
journal, January 2016


Machine learning strategies for systems with invariance properties
journal, August 2016


Machine Learning Methods for Data-Driven Turbulence Modeling
conference, June 2015

  • Zhang, Ze Jia; Duraisamy, Karthikeyan
  • 22nd AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference
  • DOI: 10.2514/6.2015-2460

Bayesian estimates of parameter variability in the k–ε turbulence model
journal, February 2014


A novel evolutionary algorithm applied to algebraic modifications of the RANS stress–strain relationship
journal, November 2016


A Comparative Study of Contrasting Machine Learning Frameworks Applied to RANS Modeling of Jets in Crossflow
conference, August 2017

  • Weatheritt, Jack; Sandberg, Richard D.; Ling, Julia
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Volume 2B: Turbomachinery
  • DOI: 10.1115/GT2017-63403

A New Algebraic Relation for Calculating the Reynolds Stresses
journal, January 1976

  • Rodi, W.
  • ZAMM - Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics / Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Vol. 56, Issue S1
  • DOI: 10.1002/zamm.19765613093

A more general effective-viscosity hypothesis
journal, November 1975


A Procedure for Using DNS Databases
journal, March 1998

  • Parneix, S.; Laurence, D.; Durbin, P. A.
  • Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.2819658

Development and Use of Machine-Learnt Algebraic Reynolds Stress Models for Enhanced Prediction of Wake Mixing in LPTs
conference, August 2018

  • Akolekar, Harshal D.; Weatheritt, Jack; Hutchins, Nicholas
  • ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Volume 2C: Turbomachinery
  • DOI: 10.1115/GT2018-75447

Toward a turbulent constitutive relation
journal, April 1970