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Title: An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input

Abstract

This paper describes a new eight-member ensemble of ocean reanalyses spanning nearly 200 years from 1815 to 2013 generated using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation system with sparse observational input (SODAsi) to explore long-term changes in the oceans. The eight ensemble members assimilate surface temperature observations and use surface boundary conditions from an atmospheric reanalysis that is loosely coupled to the ocean reanalysis. Both surface and subsurface quantities, such as dynamic height and heat content, show a broad spectrum of variability. Surface temperature trends from 1815 to 2013 are positive in most regions, with some important exceptions; the central Tropical Pacific, around Antarctica, and in the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension regions all show cooling trends. A near-global average shows warming of about 0.8°C over the full period, with most of the warming occurring after 1920. There is pronounced multidecadal variability in both the midlatitude and tropical oceans. In the North Atlantic Ocean, temperature variability is highly correlated with the meridional overturning stream function, with the largest correlation occurring when the stream function is advanced by 9 years. Trends of upper ocean heat content and dynamic height from the 1950s onward compare well with previously published values. Globally averaged heatmore » content of the upper 700 m shows a nearly linear rise after the 1920s, requiring a net downward surface heat flux increase of 0.47 W m -2 into the ocean. This is close to published estimates of the increased flux required to explain the heat content increase from 1971 to 2010.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas USA
  2. CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Division of Physical Sciences, NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Univ. of California, Oakland, CA (United States); UT-Battelle LLC/ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (Unted States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1565409
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9275
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Oceanography

Citation Formats

Giese, Benjamin S., Seidel, Howard F., Compo, Gilbert P., and Sardeshmukh, Prashant D. An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016jc012079.
Giese, Benjamin S., Seidel, Howard F., Compo, Gilbert P., & Sardeshmukh, Prashant D. An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input. United States. doi:10.1002/2016jc012079.
Giese, Benjamin S., Seidel, Howard F., Compo, Gilbert P., and Sardeshmukh, Prashant D. Thu . "An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input". United States. doi:10.1002/2016jc012079.
@article{osti_1565409,
title = {An ensemble of ocean reanalyses for 1815-2013 with sparse observational input},
author = {Giese, Benjamin S. and Seidel, Howard F. and Compo, Gilbert P. and Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.},
abstractNote = {This paper describes a new eight-member ensemble of ocean reanalyses spanning nearly 200 years from 1815 to 2013 generated using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation system with sparse observational input (SODAsi) to explore long-term changes in the oceans. The eight ensemble members assimilate surface temperature observations and use surface boundary conditions from an atmospheric reanalysis that is loosely coupled to the ocean reanalysis. Both surface and subsurface quantities, such as dynamic height and heat content, show a broad spectrum of variability. Surface temperature trends from 1815 to 2013 are positive in most regions, with some important exceptions; the central Tropical Pacific, around Antarctica, and in the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio extension regions all show cooling trends. A near-global average shows warming of about 0.8°C over the full period, with most of the warming occurring after 1920. There is pronounced multidecadal variability in both the midlatitude and tropical oceans. In the North Atlantic Ocean, temperature variability is highly correlated with the meridional overturning stream function, with the largest correlation occurring when the stream function is advanced by 9 years. Trends of upper ocean heat content and dynamic height from the 1950s onward compare well with previously published values. Globally averaged heat content of the upper 700 m shows a nearly linear rise after the 1920s, requiring a net downward surface heat flux increase of 0.47 W m-2 into the ocean. This is close to published estimates of the increased flux required to explain the heat content increase from 1971 to 2010.},
doi = {10.1002/2016jc012079},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans},
issn = {2169-9275},
number = 9,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

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