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Title: A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s

Abstract

The observed North Atlantic multi-decadal variability for the period 1872–2009 is reconstructed with the Max Planck Institute ocean model, which is forced with an ensemble of the atmospheric twentieth century reanalysis. Special emphasis is put on the early part of the experiments, which includes a prominent climate variation during the 1920s. The experiments are in agreement with selected hydrographic records, indicating a transition from cold and fresh North Atlantic water properties, prior to the 1920 climate variation, towards warm and saline waters afterwards. Examining the variation reveals that sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies prior to the 1900s resemble a negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation and associated weak winds result in a weak North Atlantic Current (NAC) and sub-polar gyre (SPG). This leads to a reduced transport of warm and saline waters into the higher latitudes. Simultaneously, Arctic freshwater release results in the accumulation of cold and fresh water properties, which cover the upper layers in the Labrador Sea and subsequently suppress convection. From the 1910s, the Arctic freshwater export is reduced, and, NAC and SPG are strengthened as a result of an increased SLP gradient over the North Atlantic. Concurrently, Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)more » increase. The intensified NAC, SPG, and AMOC redistribute sub-tropical water into the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, thereby increasing observed and modelled temperature and salinity during the 1920s.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Univ. of California, Oakland, CA (United States); UT-Battelle LLC/ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (Unted States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1565281
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Climate Dynamics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 7-8; Journal ID: ISSN 0930-7575
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences

Citation Formats

Müller, W. A., Matei, D., Bersch, M., Jungclaus, J. H., Haak, H., Lohmann, K., Compo, G. P., Sardeshmukh, P. D., and Marotzke, J. A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5.
Müller, W. A., Matei, D., Bersch, M., Jungclaus, J. H., Haak, H., Lohmann, K., Compo, G. P., Sardeshmukh, P. D., & Marotzke, J. A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. United States. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5.
Müller, W. A., Matei, D., Bersch, M., Jungclaus, J. H., Haak, H., Lohmann, K., Compo, G. P., Sardeshmukh, P. D., and Marotzke, J. Fri . "A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s". United States. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5.
@article{osti_1565281,
title = {A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s},
author = {Müller, W. A. and Matei, D. and Bersch, M. and Jungclaus, J. H. and Haak, H. and Lohmann, K. and Compo, G. P. and Sardeshmukh, P. D. and Marotzke, J.},
abstractNote = {The observed North Atlantic multi-decadal variability for the period 1872–2009 is reconstructed with the Max Planck Institute ocean model, which is forced with an ensemble of the atmospheric twentieth century reanalysis. Special emphasis is put on the early part of the experiments, which includes a prominent climate variation during the 1920s. The experiments are in agreement with selected hydrographic records, indicating a transition from cold and fresh North Atlantic water properties, prior to the 1920 climate variation, towards warm and saline waters afterwards. Examining the variation reveals that sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies prior to the 1900s resemble a negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation and associated weak winds result in a weak North Atlantic Current (NAC) and sub-polar gyre (SPG). This leads to a reduced transport of warm and saline waters into the higher latitudes. Simultaneously, Arctic freshwater release results in the accumulation of cold and fresh water properties, which cover the upper layers in the Labrador Sea and subsequently suppress convection. From the 1910s, the Arctic freshwater export is reduced, and, NAC and SPG are strengthened as a result of an increased SLP gradient over the North Atlantic. Concurrently, Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) increase. The intensified NAC, SPG, and AMOC redistribute sub-tropical water into the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, thereby increasing observed and modelled temperature and salinity during the 1920s.},
doi = {10.1007/s00382-014-2267-5},
journal = {Climate Dynamics},
issn = {0930-7575},
number = 7-8,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {8}
}

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