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Title: Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

Abstract

Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head) of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame) of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided) causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy) and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance andmore » thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs) for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [5]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Oslo (Norway); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  5. Max Planck Inst. for Physics, Munich (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21). Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)
OSTI Identifier:
1565220
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-92ER40727; SC0007970; SC0008316; SC0008491
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-4402
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

Citation Formats

An, W., Zhou, M., Vafaei-Najafabadi, N., Marsh, K. A., Clayton, C. E., Joshi, C., Mori, W. B., Lu, W., Adli, E., Corde, S., Litos, M., Li, S., Gessner, S., Frederico, J., Hogan, M. J., Walz, D., England, J., Delahaye, J. P., and Muggli, P. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevstab.16.101301.
An, W., Zhou, M., Vafaei-Najafabadi, N., Marsh, K. A., Clayton, C. E., Joshi, C., Mori, W. B., Lu, W., Adli, E., Corde, S., Litos, M., Li, S., Gessner, S., Frederico, J., Hogan, M. J., Walz, D., England, J., Delahaye, J. P., & Muggli, P. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevstab.16.101301.
An, W., Zhou, M., Vafaei-Najafabadi, N., Marsh, K. A., Clayton, C. E., Joshi, C., Mori, W. B., Lu, W., Adli, E., Corde, S., Litos, M., Li, S., Gessner, S., Frederico, J., Hogan, M. J., Walz, D., England, J., Delahaye, J. P., and Muggli, P. Wed . "Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevstab.16.101301. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565220.
@article{osti_1565220,
title = {Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator},
author = {An, W. and Zhou, M. and Vafaei-Najafabadi, N. and Marsh, K. A. and Clayton, C. E. and Joshi, C. and Mori, W. B. and Lu, W. and Adli, E. and Corde, S. and Litos, M. and Li, S. and Gessner, S. and Frederico, J. and Hogan, M. J. and Walz, D. and England, J. and Delahaye, J. P. and Muggli, P.},
abstractNote = {Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head) of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame) of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided) causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy) and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs) for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevstab.16.101301},
journal = {Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams},
issn = {1098-4402},
number = 10,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {10}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 11 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Snapshot of the plasma electron density from the wake exited by an electron beam in (a) a field-ionized lithium plasma (the plasma ions are shown in yellow and the area in white is filled by the neutral atoms that are not ionized) and (b) a preformed plasma. Themore » plots are a 2D cross section at the center of the 3D simulation box. The drive beam (shown as the red contour) is moving downwards.« less

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.