skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characteristics of turbulence-driven plasma flow and origin of experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation

Abstract

Toroidal plasma flow driven by turbulent torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation is shown to recover the observed key features of intrinsic rotation in experiments. In particular, the turbulence-driven intrinsic rotation scales close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current, qualitatively reproducing empirical scalings obtained from a large experimental data base. The effect of magnetic shear on the symmetry breaking in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is identified. The basis of the current scaling is found to be the enhanced k symmetry breaking induced by increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic rotation on the pressure gradient comes from the fact that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving the residual stress, are increased with the strength of the turbulence drives, which are $$R/L_{T_{e}}$$ and $$R/L_{n_{e}}$$ for the collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM). Highlighted results also include robust radial pinches in toroidal flow, heat and particle transport driven by CTEM turbulence, which emerge “in phase,” and are shown to play important roles in determining plasma profiles. Moreover discussed are the experimental tests proposed to validate findings from these gyrokinetic simulations.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1564767
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Wang, W. X., Hahm, T. S., Ethier, S., Diamond, P. H., Rewoldt, G., Tang, W. M., and Lee, W. W. Characteristics of turbulence-driven plasma flow and origin of experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3575162.
Wang, W. X., Hahm, T. S., Ethier, S., Diamond, P. H., Rewoldt, G., Tang, W. M., & Lee, W. W. Characteristics of turbulence-driven plasma flow and origin of experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3575162.
Wang, W. X., Hahm, T. S., Ethier, S., Diamond, P. H., Rewoldt, G., Tang, W. M., and Lee, W. W. Thu . "Characteristics of turbulence-driven plasma flow and origin of experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3575162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1564767.
@article{osti_1564767,
title = {Characteristics of turbulence-driven plasma flow and origin of experimental empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation},
author = {Wang, W. X. and Hahm, T. S. and Ethier, S. and Diamond, P. H. and Rewoldt, G. and Tang, W. M. and Lee, W. W.},
abstractNote = {Toroidal plasma flow driven by turbulent torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation is shown to recover the observed key features of intrinsic rotation in experiments. In particular, the turbulence-driven intrinsic rotation scales close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current, qualitatively reproducing empirical scalings obtained from a large experimental data base. The effect of magnetic shear on the symmetry breaking in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is identified. The basis of the current scaling is found to be the enhanced k∥ symmetry breaking induced by increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic rotation on the pressure gradient comes from the fact that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving the residual stress, are increased with the strength of the turbulence drives, which are $R/L_{T_{e}}$ and $R/L_{n_{e}}$ for the collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM). Highlighted results also include robust radial pinches in toroidal flow, heat and particle transport driven by CTEM turbulence, which emerge “in phase,” and are shown to play important roles in determining plasma profiles. Moreover discussed are the experimental tests proposed to validate findings from these gyrokinetic simulations.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3575162},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
issn = {1070-664X},
number = 4,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 10 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A simple model of intrinsic rotation in high confinement regime tokamak plasmas
journal, March 2010

  • Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.; McDevitt, C. J.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3339909

Momentum and thermal transport in neutral-beam-heated tokamaks
journal, January 1988

  • Mattor, N.; Diamond, P. H.
  • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.866747

Observation of Spontaneous Toroidal Rotation Inversion in Ohmically Heated Tokamak Plasmas
journal, December 2006


Nonlinear gyrokinetic theory of toroidal momentum pinch
journal, July 2007

  • Hahm, T. S.; Diamond, P. H.; Gurcan, O. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2743642

Observations of anomalous momentum transport in Alcator C-Mod plasmas with no momentum input
journal, February 2004


Intrinsic rotation and electric field shear
journal, April 2007

  • Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2717891

Intrinsic rotation in DIII-D
journal, May 2007

  • deGrassie, J. S.; Rice, J. E.; Burrell, K. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2539055

Intrinsic rotation driven by the electrostatic turbulence in up-down asymmetric toroidal plasmas
journal, June 2009

  • Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.; Angioni, C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3138747

Energetic consistency and momentum conservation in the gyrokinetic description of tokamak plasmas
journal, November 2010

  • Scott, B.; Smirnov, J.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3507920

Residual parallel Reynolds stress due to turbulence intensity gradient in tokamak plasmas
journal, November 2010

  • Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.; Hennequin, P.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3503624

Effects of ripple loss of fast ions on toroidal rotation in JT-60U
journal, October 2006


Momentum transport in electron-dominated NSTX spherical torus plasmas
journal, March 2009


Plasma rotation and momentum transport studies at JET
journal, November 2006

  • Vries, P. C. de; Rantamäki, K. M.; Giroud, C.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 48, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/48/12/001

Nonlinear flow generation by electrostatic turbulence in tokamaks
journal, July 2010

  • Wang, W. X.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3459096

Response of toroidal rotation velocity to electron cyclotron wave injection in JT-60U
journal, April 2006


Role of Pressure Gradient on Intrinsic Toroidal Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
journal, March 2008


Local measurements of correlated momentum and heat transport in the TFTR tokamak
journal, January 1990


Anomalous momentum transport from drift wave turbulence
journal, November 1993

  • Dominguez, R. R.; Staebler, G. M.
  • Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 5, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.860610

Gyro-kinetic simulation of global turbulent transport properties in tokamak experiments
journal, September 2006

  • Wang, W. X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2338775

Toroidal Momentum Pinch Velocity due to the Coriolis Drift Effect on Small Scale Instabilities in a Toroidal Plasma
journal, June 2007


Momentum confinement at low torque
journal, November 2007

  • Solomon, W. M.; Burrell, K. H.; deGrassie, J. S.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 49, Issue 12B
  • DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/49/12B/S29

Transport of parallel momentum by toroidal ion temperature gradient instability near marginality
journal, May 2010


On the efficiency of intrinsic rotation generation in tokamaks
journal, October 2010

  • Kosuga, Y.; Diamond, P. H.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3496055

Symmetry breaking effects of toroidicity on toroidal momentum transport
journal, May 2009


Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks
journal, October 2007


Observation of Plasma Toroidal-Momentum Dissipation by Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity
journal, June 2006


Toroidal rotation in RF heated JET plasmas
journal, March 2009


Turbulence simulations of transport barriers with toroidal velocity
journal, September 2002

  • Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Ghendrih, P.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1499494

Anomalous parallel momentum transport due to E×B flow shear in a tokamak plasma
journal, September 2009

  • Casson, F. J.; Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3227650

Physics of non-diffusive turbulent transport of momentum and the origins of spontaneous rotation in tokamaks
journal, March 2009


Theory of perturbed equilibria for solving the Grad–Shafranov equation
journal, December 1999

  • Zakharov, L. E.; Pletzer, A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873756

A novel mechanism for exciting intrinsic toroidal rotation
journal, May 2009

  • McDevitt, C. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3122048

Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
journal, January 2008

  • Diamond, P. H.; McDevitt, C. J.; Gürcan, Ö. D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2826436

Transport of parallel momentum by drift-Alfvén turbulence
journal, January 2009

  • McDevitt, C. J.; Diamond, P. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3039918