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Title: Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources

Abstract

Growing trends in the deployment of inverter-based renewable energy will decrease the inertia and frequency control capability of electric power systems by replacing conventional power plants; thus, the frequency of future power systems might be dynamic. This study proposes a capability-coordinated frequency control (CCFC) scheme of a virtual power plant (VPP) including adjustable-speed pumped storage hydropower (AS-PSH), a wind power plant (WPP), and an energy storage system to support the frequency nadir and reduce the steady-state error of system frequency. The CCFC scheme is based on a hierarchical-control structure in which a CCFC organises the output of local frequency control units. To support the frequency nadir, the CCFC dispatches weighted frequency errors that are proportional to the available headroom of the units; thus, the errors are forwarded separately with a system frequency error to the primary control loop of each unit and thereby arrest the frequency nadir at a higher value than a system without the CCFC. To reduce the steady-state error of the system frequency, the CCFC determines a partial active power command by additionally feeding an integrator of the CCFC with a modified frequency error that depends on the unit with the largest control.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Auburn University
  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Idaho National Laboratory
  4. Argonne National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1562870
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-74860
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 16
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; power grids; frequency control; power generation control; distributed power generation; pumped-storage power stations

Citation Formats

Kim, Jinho, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Luo, Yusheng, Hovsapian, Rob, and Koritarov, Vladimir. Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.5828.
Kim, Jinho, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Luo, Yusheng, Hovsapian, Rob, & Koritarov, Vladimir. Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources. United States. doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.5828.
Kim, Jinho, Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Mohanpurkar, Manish, Luo, Yusheng, Hovsapian, Rob, and Koritarov, Vladimir. Thu . "Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources". United States. doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.5828.
@article{osti_1562870,
title = {Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources},
author = {Kim, Jinho and Muljadi, Eduard and Gevorgian, Vahan and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Luo, Yusheng and Hovsapian, Rob and Koritarov, Vladimir},
abstractNote = {Growing trends in the deployment of inverter-based renewable energy will decrease the inertia and frequency control capability of electric power systems by replacing conventional power plants; thus, the frequency of future power systems might be dynamic. This study proposes a capability-coordinated frequency control (CCFC) scheme of a virtual power plant (VPP) including adjustable-speed pumped storage hydropower (AS-PSH), a wind power plant (WPP), and an energy storage system to support the frequency nadir and reduce the steady-state error of system frequency. The CCFC scheme is based on a hierarchical-control structure in which a CCFC organises the output of local frequency control units. To support the frequency nadir, the CCFC dispatches weighted frequency errors that are proportional to the available headroom of the units; thus, the errors are forwarded separately with a system frequency error to the primary control loop of each unit and thereby arrest the frequency nadir at a higher value than a system without the CCFC. To reduce the steady-state error of the system frequency, the CCFC determines a partial active power command by additionally feeding an integrator of the CCFC with a modified frequency error that depends on the unit with the largest control.},
doi = {10.1049/iet-gtd.2018.5828},
journal = {IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution},
number = 16,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}