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Title: Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices

Abstract

The need for high efficiency automotive engines has led to more complex air handling and fuel injection systems, higher compression ratios, more advanced combustion and aftertreatment systems, and the use of fuels with higher octane ratings. Higher octane number fuels have a lower propensity to knock. This work studies the influence of changing fuel octane rating on two modern production gasoline vehicles, one with a naturally aspirated, port injected engine and the other with a turbocharged, direct injected engine, using fuels with four different octane number grades (with 85, 87, 91, and 93 anti-knock indices) and operated over a variety of driving cycles and temperature conditions. Unlike previous studies, this effort develops and demonstrates a methodology that isolates fuel effects on fuel consumption and provides a clear view of the octane impact on existing vehicles. While fuel octane rating can also impact factors such as the allowable compression ratio and gear shifting strategies, this study examines fuel consumption changes that are solely attributable to octane rating on production vehicles. The developed approach uses results from drive cycle as well as steady-state tests along with response surface modeling to predict the engine combustion phasing and changes in efficiency for each fuelmore » relative to the baseline 87 anti-knock index (AKI) fuel. The methodology is then used to capture the role of fuel octane rating on powertrain efficiency over Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification drive cycles and demonstrate the variation of that impact as a function of powertrain output power. Based on the vehicles and fuels tested in this study, the metrics indicate that the effects of octane on efficiency are limited to a portion of the operating modes represented in the driving cycles used for vehicle certification. In addition, an octane potential benefit index (OPBI) suggests that the vehicle with the turbocharged, direct injected engine has a greater potential to benefit from higher octane number fuel compared to the naturally aspirated, port injected engine and proposes a way to quantify this impact for production vehicles.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
American Petroleum Institute
OSTI Identifier:
1562662
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jehlik, Forrest, Lohse-Busch, Henning, Iliev, Simeon, and Hall, Carrie. Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.4271/04-12-02-0005.
Jehlik, Forrest, Lohse-Busch, Henning, Iliev, Simeon, & Hall, Carrie. Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices. United States. doi:10.4271/04-12-02-0005.
Jehlik, Forrest, Lohse-Busch, Henning, Iliev, Simeon, and Hall, Carrie. Tue . "Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices". United States. doi:10.4271/04-12-02-0005.
@article{osti_1562662,
title = {Capturing the Impact of Fuel Octane Number on Modern Gasoline Vehicles with Octane Indices},
author = {Jehlik, Forrest and Lohse-Busch, Henning and Iliev, Simeon and Hall, Carrie},
abstractNote = {The need for high efficiency automotive engines has led to more complex air handling and fuel injection systems, higher compression ratios, more advanced combustion and aftertreatment systems, and the use of fuels with higher octane ratings. Higher octane number fuels have a lower propensity to knock. This work studies the influence of changing fuel octane rating on two modern production gasoline vehicles, one with a naturally aspirated, port injected engine and the other with a turbocharged, direct injected engine, using fuels with four different octane number grades (with 85, 87, 91, and 93 anti-knock indices) and operated over a variety of driving cycles and temperature conditions. Unlike previous studies, this effort develops and demonstrates a methodology that isolates fuel effects on fuel consumption and provides a clear view of the octane impact on existing vehicles. While fuel octane rating can also impact factors such as the allowable compression ratio and gear shifting strategies, this study examines fuel consumption changes that are solely attributable to octane rating on production vehicles. The developed approach uses results from drive cycle as well as steady-state tests along with response surface modeling to predict the engine combustion phasing and changes in efficiency for each fuel relative to the baseline 87 anti-knock index (AKI) fuel. The methodology is then used to capture the role of fuel octane rating on powertrain efficiency over Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification drive cycles and demonstrate the variation of that impact as a function of powertrain output power. Based on the vehicles and fuels tested in this study, the metrics indicate that the effects of octane on efficiency are limited to a portion of the operating modes represented in the driving cycles used for vehicle certification. In addition, an octane potential benefit index (OPBI) suggests that the vehicle with the turbocharged, direct injected engine has a greater potential to benefit from higher octane number fuel compared to the naturally aspirated, port injected engine and proposes a way to quantify this impact for production vehicles.},
doi = {10.4271/04-12-02-0005},
journal = {SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants},
number = 2,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}