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Title: Coordinated PEV Charging for Distribution System Management

Abstract

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can help to reduce worldwide dependence on petroleum and carbon emissions. In the past a few years, PEVs have received considerable attention as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to conventional gasoline vehicles. PEVs consume higher power from the grid during charging compared to conventional residential loads. Therefore, the emerging fleet of PEVs will introduce a considerable amount of additional load on power system. On the other hand, majority of PEVs are parked for more than 90% of the time, making them ideal for providing various services through Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), a.k.a. charging stations which are PEVs’ connection points to the power system. In this project, coordinated PEV charging are developed to provide distribution system services, considering PEV characteristics, realistic travel pattern, charging behaviors, and EVSE power rating and availability. The main efforts and contributions are summarized as follows. • Mobility models and EVSE charging capability/availability are indispensable for evaluating PEV charging coordination strategies and developing PEV charging control. Many existing studies utilize simplified mobility models assuming that the entire vehicle fleet returns home in the evening and is parked at home until the next morning. Some other PEV models better represent diversified home arrivalmore » and departure time, but cannot capture varying charging flexibility and capability at different locations, and therefore are not appropriate to study the impacts of public EVSE on PEV load and utilization. In this work, a mobility and charging flexibility model is proposed to better represent the temporal availability and varying charging capability from PEV onboard charger and EVSE. • Based on the mobility model, a generalized optimization method is proposed to evaluate different PEV charging coordination strategies. In existing literature, different algorithms and methods need to be designed to evaluate each charging strategy from both vehicle owners’ and system’s perspective. With the optimization method proposed in this work, different charging control strategies can be studied and compared by only updating objective functions. Moreover, optimization tricks are provided to convert the optimization problems to equivalent linear programming problems, which can be efficiently solved with existing solvers. • An innovative scheduling and control framework is proposed to enable smart PEV charging for grid services while meeting PEV owners’ travel needs. In the proposed framework, each set of EVSE is equipped with a controller that estimates charging power and energy flexibility based on vehicle characteristics, EVSE power rating, battery energy state, and upcoming trip information. With the simplified charging flexibility model received from each EVSE controller, the central coordinator determines the optimal power allocation for a look-ahead time window for the given grid services. The proposed charging control can help reduce the computational complexity and communication requirement compared with existing methods. It is also scalable to the expanding PEV fleet and robust to uncertainties in upcoming vehicle trips and future system condition. • The proposed charging strategy evaluation and smart charging control methods are applied to one of the prototypical feeders developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for case studies. Detailed trip information extracted from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) is used to represent travel and parking patterns. Different scenarios are simulated to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods and understand how PEV mobility and public EVSE availability affect PEV load and potential grid services.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1562254
Report Number(s):
PNNL-27710
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Wu, Di, Radhakrishnan, Nikitha, Ke, Xinda, Huang, Sen, Reiman, Andrew P., and Kalsi, Karanjit. Coordinated PEV Charging for Distribution System Management. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1562254.
Wu, Di, Radhakrishnan, Nikitha, Ke, Xinda, Huang, Sen, Reiman, Andrew P., & Kalsi, Karanjit. Coordinated PEV Charging for Distribution System Management. United States. doi:10.2172/1562254.
Wu, Di, Radhakrishnan, Nikitha, Ke, Xinda, Huang, Sen, Reiman, Andrew P., and Kalsi, Karanjit. Fri . "Coordinated PEV Charging for Distribution System Management". United States. doi:10.2172/1562254. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1562254.
@article{osti_1562254,
title = {Coordinated PEV Charging for Distribution System Management},
author = {Wu, Di and Radhakrishnan, Nikitha and Ke, Xinda and Huang, Sen and Reiman, Andrew P. and Kalsi, Karanjit},
abstractNote = {Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can help to reduce worldwide dependence on petroleum and carbon emissions. In the past a few years, PEVs have received considerable attention as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to conventional gasoline vehicles. PEVs consume higher power from the grid during charging compared to conventional residential loads. Therefore, the emerging fleet of PEVs will introduce a considerable amount of additional load on power system. On the other hand, majority of PEVs are parked for more than 90% of the time, making them ideal for providing various services through Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), a.k.a. charging stations which are PEVs’ connection points to the power system. In this project, coordinated PEV charging are developed to provide distribution system services, considering PEV characteristics, realistic travel pattern, charging behaviors, and EVSE power rating and availability. The main efforts and contributions are summarized as follows. • Mobility models and EVSE charging capability/availability are indispensable for evaluating PEV charging coordination strategies and developing PEV charging control. Many existing studies utilize simplified mobility models assuming that the entire vehicle fleet returns home in the evening and is parked at home until the next morning. Some other PEV models better represent diversified home arrival and departure time, but cannot capture varying charging flexibility and capability at different locations, and therefore are not appropriate to study the impacts of public EVSE on PEV load and utilization. In this work, a mobility and charging flexibility model is proposed to better represent the temporal availability and varying charging capability from PEV onboard charger and EVSE. • Based on the mobility model, a generalized optimization method is proposed to evaluate different PEV charging coordination strategies. In existing literature, different algorithms and methods need to be designed to evaluate each charging strategy from both vehicle owners’ and system’s perspective. With the optimization method proposed in this work, different charging control strategies can be studied and compared by only updating objective functions. Moreover, optimization tricks are provided to convert the optimization problems to equivalent linear programming problems, which can be efficiently solved with existing solvers. • An innovative scheduling and control framework is proposed to enable smart PEV charging for grid services while meeting PEV owners’ travel needs. In the proposed framework, each set of EVSE is equipped with a controller that estimates charging power and energy flexibility based on vehicle characteristics, EVSE power rating, battery energy state, and upcoming trip information. With the simplified charging flexibility model received from each EVSE controller, the central coordinator determines the optimal power allocation for a look-ahead time window for the given grid services. The proposed charging control can help reduce the computational complexity and communication requirement compared with existing methods. It is also scalable to the expanding PEV fleet and robust to uncertainties in upcoming vehicle trips and future system condition. • The proposed charging strategy evaluation and smart charging control methods are applied to one of the prototypical feeders developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for case studies. Detailed trip information extracted from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) is used to represent travel and parking patterns. Different scenarios are simulated to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods and understand how PEV mobility and public EVSE availability affect PEV load and potential grid services.},
doi = {10.2172/1562254},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}