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Title: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Commercial Refrigeration: Final Report

Abstract

This report provides background information on various fractional-horsepower electric motor technologies used for evaporator fan applications in commercial refrigeration and summarizes data from a DOE-sponsored evaporator fan motor laboratory and field demonstration project. This report also extrapolates that data to project the potential economic and environmental benefits resulting from upgrading the current installed base of commercial refrigeration evaporator fan motors to permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors.Evaporator fan motors used in commercial refrigeration applications are fractional horsepower in size, responsible for moving air across the evaporator coil, and typically run at one speed. Historically, shaded-pole induction motors have been the most commonly used evaporator fan motors in commercial refrigeration equipment and beverage vending machines. These are the simplest and least expensive type of fractional-horsepower motor, with an efficiency of approximately 20%. Electronically commutated (EC) permanent magnet motors, also known as brushless DC motors, were initially commercialized in the late 1980s, and their use in commercial refrigeration applications has increased within the last 10 to 15 years because of economic incentives and regulatory requirements. State-of-the-art EC motors are approximately 66% efficient. Another induction motor type, the permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, offers a mid-point between shaded-pole and EC motor price and efficiencymore » levels. PSC motors are typically about 29% efficient.A permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) AC motor that can directly use grid-supplied AC current without the need to rectify to DC has recently been commercialized. This new motor exhibits a peak efficiency of 75% and has the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption of evaporator fan motors in commercial refrigeration equipment. Laboratory evaluation of evaporator fan motor technologies was performed to quantify and compare the performance of shaded-pole, PSC, EC, and PMS evaporator fan motors in a controlled environment, so as to minimize the influence of external factors and anomalies. The laboratory evaluation included dynamometer testing of the fan motors and airflow testing of the motor/fan assemblies. It was found that the 6–12 W PMS motor exhibited a peak efficiency of 75% with a power factor of approximately 0.9 at a power output of 11 W. It was also found that a 38–50 W PMS motor exhibited a peak efficiency of 82% with a power factor of approximately 0.9 at a power output of 35 W.Airflow testing of shaded-pole, PSC, EC, and PMS motor/fan assemblies was performed using an airflow test chamber, which was designed in accordance with ANSI/AMCA Standard 210-16/ASHRAE Standard 51-16, to measure the performance of the subject motor/fan assembly and to determine the incumbent display case system impedance (AMCA 2016). A family of fan curves (static pressure vs airflow rate and electrical power input vs airflow rate) was generated for the 6–12 W PMS motor/fan assemblies with 8-inch fan blades pitched from 17 to 32 degrees. A similar set of curves was generated for the 38–50 W motors paired with 10 and 12-inch blades. Various incumbent motor/fan assemblies were also tested in the laboratory airflow test chamber and their fan curves were generated.Field evaluation of refrigerated display case evaporator fan motors was accomplished by performing side-by-side comparisons of 6–12 W PMS motors to 6–12 W shaded-pole and EC evaporator fan motors. It was found that, on average, a PMS motor consumes 79% less power and draws 82% less current than a shaded pole motor, and on average, 34% less power and 49% less current than an EC motor. In addition, the PMS motor exhibits an average power factor of approximately 0.82, which is on average 40% greater than that of existing evaporator fan motors.Two field test sites were selected to evaluate the performance of the larger 38 to 50 W PMS evaporator fan motors in walk-in cooler/freezer applications. At each supermarket, two walk-in units were selected for investigation: one walk-in dairy cooler and one walk-in freezer. A 61% decrease in fan motor power was measured when retrofitting existing evaporator fan motors with PMS motors in the walk-in cooler. In addition, a 48% decrease in fan motor power was measured when retrofitting existing evaporator fan motors with PMS motors in the walk-in freezer.The culmination of the field evaluation of fan motor technologies was a whole-store retrofit conducted at a supermarket. Pre- and post-retrofit measurement of evaporator fan motor power in medium- and low-temperature refrigerated display cases and walk-in coolers/freezers was performed. Overall for the whole-store retrofit, the current supplied to all monitored evaporator fan motors was reduced by 52%, the real power was reduced by 46% and the apparent power was reduced by 51% following the retrofit of the 262 evaporator fan motors that w« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. University of Missouri, Kansas City
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1561671
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2018/971
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Fricke, Brian A., and Becker, Bryan R. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Commercial Refrigeration: Final Report. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1561671.
Fricke, Brian A., & Becker, Bryan R. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Commercial Refrigeration: Final Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1561671.
Fricke, Brian A., and Becker, Bryan R. Sun . "Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Commercial Refrigeration: Final Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1561671. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561671.
@article{osti_1561671,
title = {Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Commercial Refrigeration: Final Report},
author = {Fricke, Brian A. and Becker, Bryan R.},
abstractNote = {This report provides background information on various fractional-horsepower electric motor technologies used for evaporator fan applications in commercial refrigeration and summarizes data from a DOE-sponsored evaporator fan motor laboratory and field demonstration project. This report also extrapolates that data to project the potential economic and environmental benefits resulting from upgrading the current installed base of commercial refrigeration evaporator fan motors to permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors.Evaporator fan motors used in commercial refrigeration applications are fractional horsepower in size, responsible for moving air across the evaporator coil, and typically run at one speed. Historically, shaded-pole induction motors have been the most commonly used evaporator fan motors in commercial refrigeration equipment and beverage vending machines. These are the simplest and least expensive type of fractional-horsepower motor, with an efficiency of approximately 20%. Electronically commutated (EC) permanent magnet motors, also known as brushless DC motors, were initially commercialized in the late 1980s, and their use in commercial refrigeration applications has increased within the last 10 to 15 years because of economic incentives and regulatory requirements. State-of-the-art EC motors are approximately 66% efficient. Another induction motor type, the permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, offers a mid-point between shaded-pole and EC motor price and efficiency levels. PSC motors are typically about 29% efficient.A permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) AC motor that can directly use grid-supplied AC current without the need to rectify to DC has recently been commercialized. This new motor exhibits a peak efficiency of 75% and has the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption of evaporator fan motors in commercial refrigeration equipment. Laboratory evaluation of evaporator fan motor technologies was performed to quantify and compare the performance of shaded-pole, PSC, EC, and PMS evaporator fan motors in a controlled environment, so as to minimize the influence of external factors and anomalies. The laboratory evaluation included dynamometer testing of the fan motors and airflow testing of the motor/fan assemblies. It was found that the 6–12 W PMS motor exhibited a peak efficiency of 75% with a power factor of approximately 0.9 at a power output of 11 W. It was also found that a 38–50 W PMS motor exhibited a peak efficiency of 82% with a power factor of approximately 0.9 at a power output of 35 W.Airflow testing of shaded-pole, PSC, EC, and PMS motor/fan assemblies was performed using an airflow test chamber, which was designed in accordance with ANSI/AMCA Standard 210-16/ASHRAE Standard 51-16, to measure the performance of the subject motor/fan assembly and to determine the incumbent display case system impedance (AMCA 2016). A family of fan curves (static pressure vs airflow rate and electrical power input vs airflow rate) was generated for the 6–12 W PMS motor/fan assemblies with 8-inch fan blades pitched from 17 to 32 degrees. A similar set of curves was generated for the 38–50 W motors paired with 10 and 12-inch blades. Various incumbent motor/fan assemblies were also tested in the laboratory airflow test chamber and their fan curves were generated.Field evaluation of refrigerated display case evaporator fan motors was accomplished by performing side-by-side comparisons of 6–12 W PMS motors to 6–12 W shaded-pole and EC evaporator fan motors. It was found that, on average, a PMS motor consumes 79% less power and draws 82% less current than a shaded pole motor, and on average, 34% less power and 49% less current than an EC motor. In addition, the PMS motor exhibits an average power factor of approximately 0.82, which is on average 40% greater than that of existing evaporator fan motors.Two field test sites were selected to evaluate the performance of the larger 38 to 50 W PMS evaporator fan motors in walk-in cooler/freezer applications. At each supermarket, two walk-in units were selected for investigation: one walk-in dairy cooler and one walk-in freezer. A 61% decrease in fan motor power was measured when retrofitting existing evaporator fan motors with PMS motors in the walk-in cooler. In addition, a 48% decrease in fan motor power was measured when retrofitting existing evaporator fan motors with PMS motors in the walk-in freezer.The culmination of the field evaluation of fan motor technologies was a whole-store retrofit conducted at a supermarket. Pre- and post-retrofit measurement of evaporator fan motor power in medium- and low-temperature refrigerated display cases and walk-in coolers/freezers was performed. Overall for the whole-store retrofit, the current supplied to all monitored evaporator fan motors was reduced by 52%, the real power was reduced by 46% and the apparent power was reduced by 51% following the retrofit of the 262 evaporator fan motors that w},
doi = {10.2172/1561671},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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