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Title: Statistics of the Charge Spectrum of Photo-Multipliers and Methods for Absolute Calibration

Abstract

In this paper, we derive the full expression for the shape of the charge distribution that results from the illumination of a photo-multiplier tube. The derivation assumes that the photo-multiplier is operated with low intensity illumination with constant gain. Under these conditions, it is shown that an analytic expression can be formulated that describes details of the spectrum including the pedestal and dark noise with excellent fidelity to allow statistical fits to data. The full formula and its limiting forms under various simplifying assumptions are presented with strategies on their use. The analytic description can be used to formulate data acquisition strategies to perform precise absolute calibration of photo-multipliers, the digitizers, and the data acquisition system.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1561237
Report Number(s):
BNL-212076-2019-FORE
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Diwan, Milind. Statistics of the Charge Spectrum of Photo-Multipliers and Methods for Absolute Calibration. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1561237.
Diwan, Milind. Statistics of the Charge Spectrum of Photo-Multipliers and Methods for Absolute Calibration. United States. doi:10.2172/1561237.
Diwan, Milind. Mon . "Statistics of the Charge Spectrum of Photo-Multipliers and Methods for Absolute Calibration". United States. doi:10.2172/1561237. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561237.
@article{osti_1561237,
title = {Statistics of the Charge Spectrum of Photo-Multipliers and Methods for Absolute Calibration},
author = {Diwan, Milind},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we derive the full expression for the shape of the charge distribution that results from the illumination of a photo-multiplier tube. The derivation assumes that the photo-multiplier is operated with low intensity illumination with constant gain. Under these conditions, it is shown that an analytic expression can be formulated that describes details of the spectrum including the pedestal and dark noise with excellent fidelity to allow statistical fits to data. The full formula and its limiting forms under various simplifying assumptions are presented with strategies on their use. The analytic description can be used to formulate data acquisition strategies to perform precise absolute calibration of photo-multipliers, the digitizers, and the data acquisition system.},
doi = {10.2172/1561237},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}