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Title: Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe

Abstract

We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $$\mathrm{U}(1)$$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $$\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$$ is also broken to an $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1560728
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1546013
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1906.05157; FERMILAB-PUB-19-269-T; PITT-PACC-1903
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 055005
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0007859; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review D Journal Volume: 100 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica. Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., & Turner, Jessica. Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica. Fri . "Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
@article{osti_1560728,
title = {Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe},
author = {Berger, Joshua and Long, Andrew J. and Turner, Jessica},
abstractNote = {We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $\mathrm{U}(1)$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$ is also broken to an $\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005},
journal = {Physical Review D},
issn = {2470-0010},
number = 5,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: The strength of the SU(2)L weak force is parametrized by the fine structure constant αW =more » $g$$^{2}_{eff}$/4$π$, which varies with the temperature of the cosmological plasma, $T$, according to the renormalization group flow. The solid-green line illustrates the Standard Model prediction: the weak force grows stronger (smaller α$^{−1}_{W}$ ) as the plasma cools (smaller $T$), but it remains weak (α$^{−1}_{W}$ ≫ 1/4$π$) when the theory is Higgsed at $T$ ∼ $v$ ∼ 100 GeV. Instead, we are interested in the weak-confined Standard Model, corresponding to the dashed-green line: the nonzero modulus field makes the weak force stronger (smaller α$^{−1}_{W}$ ) at early times (large $T$) such that αW reaches ∼4$π$ at $T$ ∼ $Λ$W , and the theory enters the SU(2)L-confined phase.« less

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