# Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe

## Abstract

We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $$\mathrm{U}(1)$$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $$\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$$ is also broken to an $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1560728

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1546013

- Report Number(s):
- arXiv:1906.05157; FERMILAB-PUB-19-269-T; PITT-PACC-1903

Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 055005

- Grant/Contract Number:
- SC0007859; AC02-07CH11359

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article: Published Article

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review D

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Name: Physical Review D Journal Volume: 100 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

### Citation Formats

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica.
```*Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe*. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., & Turner, Jessica.
```*Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe*. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica. Fri .
"Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
```

```
@article{osti_1560728,
```

title = {Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe},

author = {Berger, Joshua and Long, Andrew J. and Turner, Jessica},

abstractNote = {We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $\mathrm{U}(1)$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$ is also broken to an $\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005},

journal = {Physical Review D},

issn = {2470-0010},

number = 5,

volume = 100,

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {9}

}

*Citation information provided by*

Web of Science

Web of Science

#### Figures / Tables:

_{L}weak force is parametrized by the fine structure constant α

_{W}=more »

Works referenced in this record:

##
Symmetry Breaking through Bell-Jackiw Anomalies

journal, July 1976

- 't Hooft, G.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 1

##
Slope of the beta function at the fixed point of SU(2) gauge theory with six or eight flavors

journal, September 2018

- Leino, Viljami; Rummukainen, Kari; Tuominen, Kimmo
- Physical Review D, Vol. 98, Issue 5

##
Light asymmetric dark matter on the lattice: SU(2) technicolor with two fundamental flavors

journal, January 2012

- Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
- Physical Review D, Vol. 85, Issue 1

##
Strongly coupled standard model

journal, August 1986

- Claudson, M.; Farhi, E.; Jaffe, R. L.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 34, Issue 3

##
Baryogenesis from Strong $CP$ Violation and the QCD Axion

journal, October 2014

- Servant, Géraldine
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 113, Issue 17

##
Six flavor quark matter

journal, June 2018

- Bai, Yang; Long, Andrew J.
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 6

##
Constraining the strongly coupled standard model including a *W* ′ isotriplet

journal, January 1996

- Sather, Eric; Skiba, Witold
- Physical Review D, Vol. 53, Issue 1

##
Lattice study on quantum-mechanical dynamics of two-color QCD with six light flavors

journal, November 2013

- Hayakawa, M.; Ishikawa, K. -I.; Takeda, S.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 88, Issue 9

##
Domain walls and vortices in chiral symmetry breaking

journal, March 2014

- Eto, M.; Hirono, Y.; Nitta, M.
- Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Vol. 2014, Issue 3

##
How instantons solve the U(1) problem

journal, September 1986

- 't Hooft, G.
- Physics Reports, Vol. 142, Issue 6

##
Ultraviolet Behavior of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories

journal, June 1973

- Gross, David J.; Wilczek, Frank
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 26

##
Electroweak baryogenesis with electroweak strings

journal, June 1993

- Brandenberger, Robert H.; Davis, Anne-Christine
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 308, Issue 1-2

##
Partial-symmetries of weak interactions

journal, February 1961

- Glashow, Sheldon L.
- Nuclear Physics, Vol. 22, Issue 4

##
Electroweak d-waves

journal, January 2002

- Calmet, Xavier; Fritzsch, Harald
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 526, Issue 1-2

##
SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental flavors: A minimal template for model building

journal, November 2016

- Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin
- Physical Review D, Vol. 94, Issue 9

##
Confined hidden vector dark matter

journal, January 2010

- Hambye, Thomas; Tytgat, Michel H. G.
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 683, Issue 1

##
Axion cosmology with a stronger QCD in the early universe

journal, April 1997

- Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Jihn E.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 490, Issue 1-2

##
Are the weak interactions strong?

journal, April 1981

- Abbott, L. F.; Farhi, E.
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 101, Issue 1-2

##
Electromagnetic Mass Difference of Pions

journal, May 1967

- Das, T.; Guralnik, G. S.; Mathur, V. S.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 18, Issue 18

##
Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

journal, March 1994

- Kamionkowski, Marc; Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 49, Issue 6

##
Subgroup alignment in hypercolor theories

journal, January 1981

- Preskill, John
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 177, Issue 1

##
Little Higgs models and their phenomenology

journal, January 2007

- Perelstein, Maxim
- Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vol. 58, Issue 1

##
QCD-induced electroweak phase transition

journal, January 2018

- von Harling, Benedict; Servant, Géraldine
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 1

##
Finite-temperature behavior of the lattice abelian Higgs model

journal, December 1979

- Banks, Thomas; Rabinovici, Eliezer
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 160, Issue 2

##
Dark matter from strong dynamics: the minimal theory of dark baryons

journal, December 2018

- Francis, Anthony; Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lewis, Randy
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 12

##
Gravitational radiation from cosmological phase transitions

journal, February 1986

- Hogan, C. J.
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 218, Issue 4

##
Gauge field theories on a lattice

journal, February 1978

- Osterwalder, K.; Seiler, E.
- Annals of Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 2

##
The electroweak vacuum angle

journal, May 2014

- Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Patel, Hiren H.
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 732

##
Electroweak baryogenesis from temperature-varying couplings

journal, August 2019

- Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Ipek, Seyda; White, Graham
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 8

##
Strong *CP* violation, electroweak baryogenesis, and axionic dark matter

journal, January 1992

- Kuzmin, V. A.; Shaposhnikov, M. E.; Tkachev, I. I.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 45, Issue 2

##
Light composite fermions

journal, October 1980

- Dimopoulos, S.; Raby, S.; Susskind, L.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 173, Issue 2

##
Anomalous global strings and primordial magnetic fields

journal, March 1999

- Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang, Xinmin
- Physical Review D, Vol. 59, Issue 8

##
Counting 4π's in strongly coupled supersymmetry

journal, October 1997

- Cohen, Andrew G.; Kaplan, David B.; Nelson, Ann E.
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 412, Issue 3-4

##
The Standard Model in its other phase

journal, March 2001

- Samuel, Stuart
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 597, Issue 1-3

##
Radiative contribution to the composite-Higgs potential in a two-representation lattice model

journal, May 2019

- Ayyar, Venkitesh; Golterman, Maarten; Hackett, Daniel C.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 99, Issue 9

##
Isospin breaking in technicolor models

journal, October 1980

- Sikivie, P.; Susskind, L.; Voloshin, M.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 173, Issue 2

##
Phase diagrams of lattice gauge theories with Higgs fields

journal, June 1979

- Fradkin, Eduardo; Shenker, Stephen H.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 19, Issue 12

##
Symmetry-breaking patterns in pseudoreal and real gauge theories

journal, August 1984

- Kosower, David A.
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 144, Issue 3-4

##
Radiative Corrections as the Origin of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

journal, March 1973

- Coleman, Sidney; Weinberg, Erick
- Physical Review D, Vol. 7, Issue 6

##
Constraints on the excitations in the strongly coupled standard model

journal, July 2009

- D’Eramo, Francesco
- Physical Review D, Vol. 80, Issue 1

##
Infrared fixed point of SU(2) gauge theory with six flavors

journal, June 2018

- Leino, Viljami; Rummukainen, Kari; Suorsa, Joni
- Physical Review D, Vol. 97, Issue 11

##
Topology of cosmic domains and strings

journal, August 1976

- Kibble, T. W. B.
- Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, Vol. 9, Issue 8

##
Two-component spinor techniques and Feynman rules for quantum field theory and supersymmetry

journal, September 2010

- Dreiner, Herbi K.; Haber, Howard E.; Martin, Stephen P.
- Physics Reports, Vol. 494, Issue 1-2

##
Remarks on the chiral phase transition in chromodynamics

journal, January 1984

- Pisarski, Robert D.; Wilczek, Frank
- Physical Review D, Vol. 29, Issue 2

##
Determining the conformal window: SU(2) gauge theory with N f = 4, 6 and 10 fermion flavours

journal, May 2012

- Karavirta, Tuomas; Rantaharju, Jarno; Rummukainen, Kari
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2012, Issue 5

##
The electroweak interactions as a confinement phenomenon

journal, December 2000

- Calmet, Xavier; Fritzsch, Harald
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 496, Issue 3-4

##
Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. II: gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions

journal, April 2016

- Caprini, Chiara; Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan
- Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 04

##
Calculation of the Higgs boson mass using the complementarity principle

journal, January 2002

- Calmet, Xavier; Fritzsch, Harald
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 525, Issue 3-4

##
Chiral quarks and the non-relativistic quark model

journal, March 1984

- Manohar, Aneesh; Georgi, Howard
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 234, Issue 1

##
Phenomenological Lagrangians

journal, April 1979

- Weinberg, Steven
- Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Vol. 96, Issue 1-2

##
Progress in Electroweak Baryogenesis

journal, December 1993

- Cohen, A. G.; Kaplan, D. B.; Nelson, A. E.
- Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, Vol. 43, Issue 1

##
Early Cosmological Period of QCD Confinement

journal, March 2019

- Ipek, Seyda; Tait, Tim M. P.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 122, Issue 11

##
Pion and ${\eta}^{\prime}$ strings

journal, June 1998

- Zhang, Xinmin; Huang, Tao; Brandenberger, Robert H.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 58, Issue 2

##
Flavor at ssc energies: A new mechanism for dynamically generated fermion masses

journal, November 1991

- Kaplan, David B.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 365, Issue 2

##
A confining model of the weak interactions

journal, November 1981

- Abbott, L. F.; Farhi, E.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 189, Issue 3

##
Gedanken worlds without Higgs fields: QCD-induced electroweak symmetry breaking

journal, May 2009

- Quigg, Chris; Shrock, Robert
- Physical Review D, Vol. 79, Issue 9

##
QCD-Electroweak First-Order Phase Transition in a Supercooled Universe

journal, October 2017

- Iso, Satoshi; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Shimada, Kengo
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 119, Issue 14

##
A Model of Leptons

journal, November 1967

- Weinberg, Steven
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 19, Issue 21

Figures / Tables found in this record:

*Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.*