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Title: Purification of Gas and Liquid Streams Using Composite Sorbents Embedded in a Polyacrylonitrile Matrix

Abstract

As new sorbents are developed for purifying gases or liquids via physisorption and/or chemisorption processes, the objective is typically to increase the specific surface area (SSA) to maximize the available binding sites for capturing various species of interest. One downfall to making a sorbent more porous is that it often leads to a product that is fragile or friable and can be damaged (resulting in unwanted powders), thus imposing process limitations. Techniques can be used to enhance the mechanical integrity of a sorbent, including heat treatments or pelletization with extrusion or granulation processes, but these can result in collapsed, unavailable pore structures within the sorbent, which decreases the diffusivity and eventually reduces the capacities of target species. An alternative approach for improving the mechanical integrity of the sorbent is to bind it (or encapsulate it) within a porous matrix that passively holds the sorbent in place. Typically, this approach leads to a decrease in sorption efficiency on the basis of starting sorbent mass, because the active sorbent is diluted by the binding matrix material and the active surfaces of the sorbent are somewhat obscured by the binding matrix; however, it comes with the advantage that the active sorbent is heldmore » in place and better protected from disintegrating during operation. One approach to securing the active sorbent is to embed it in a macroporous, passive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix to create a composite sorbent. When optimized, the PAN matrix is highly porous and allows for gaseous or aqueous media transport through the product, providing adequate binding site access between the active sorbent and the species of interest. Including a polymer in the composite sorbent limits the maximum operating temperature, above which the composite sorbent incurs loss of structural integrity (e.g., decomposes) and/or reduction in SSA. Composite sorbents have been demonstrated with sulfide aerogels (SnS-PAN) for capturing I2(g), hydrogen mordenite (HZ-PAN) and silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ-PAN) for capturing Kr and Xe, nanoparticle metal oxides (Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent, or N-CAS) for removing arsenic from water, ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP-PAN) for removing cesium-137 (137Cs) from aqueous nuclear waste streams, and The Phosphate Sponge (TPS) composite, which is being used to remove inorganic/ortho-phosphates in water treatment processes to mitigate introduction to the environment, which impedes toxic algae bloom formations. This chapter provides details on production of these materials along with options to optimize the synthesis process. It also includes experimental techniques to characterize products and assess their performance.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
  2. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1559961
Report Number(s):
INL/MIS-18-51250-Rev000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Book
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 - NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; liquid/gas purification, polyacrylonitrile, sorbents

Citation Formats

PhD, Brian Riley, and Garn, Troy. Purification of Gas and Liquid Streams Using Composite Sorbents Embedded in a Polyacrylonitrile Matrix. United States: N. p., 2019. Web.
PhD, Brian Riley, & Garn, Troy. Purification of Gas and Liquid Streams Using Composite Sorbents Embedded in a Polyacrylonitrile Matrix. United States.
PhD, Brian Riley, and Garn, Troy. Mon . "Purification of Gas and Liquid Streams Using Composite Sorbents Embedded in a Polyacrylonitrile Matrix". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1559961.
@article{osti_1559961,
title = {Purification of Gas and Liquid Streams Using Composite Sorbents Embedded in a Polyacrylonitrile Matrix},
author = {PhD, Brian Riley and Garn, Troy},
abstractNote = {As new sorbents are developed for purifying gases or liquids via physisorption and/or chemisorption processes, the objective is typically to increase the specific surface area (SSA) to maximize the available binding sites for capturing various species of interest. One downfall to making a sorbent more porous is that it often leads to a product that is fragile or friable and can be damaged (resulting in unwanted powders), thus imposing process limitations. Techniques can be used to enhance the mechanical integrity of a sorbent, including heat treatments or pelletization with extrusion or granulation processes, but these can result in collapsed, unavailable pore structures within the sorbent, which decreases the diffusivity and eventually reduces the capacities of target species. An alternative approach for improving the mechanical integrity of the sorbent is to bind it (or encapsulate it) within a porous matrix that passively holds the sorbent in place. Typically, this approach leads to a decrease in sorption efficiency on the basis of starting sorbent mass, because the active sorbent is diluted by the binding matrix material and the active surfaces of the sorbent are somewhat obscured by the binding matrix; however, it comes with the advantage that the active sorbent is held in place and better protected from disintegrating during operation. One approach to securing the active sorbent is to embed it in a macroporous, passive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix to create a composite sorbent. When optimized, the PAN matrix is highly porous and allows for gaseous or aqueous media transport through the product, providing adequate binding site access between the active sorbent and the species of interest. Including a polymer in the composite sorbent limits the maximum operating temperature, above which the composite sorbent incurs loss of structural integrity (e.g., decomposes) and/or reduction in SSA. Composite sorbents have been demonstrated with sulfide aerogels (SnS-PAN) for capturing I2(g), hydrogen mordenite (HZ-PAN) and silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ-PAN) for capturing Kr and Xe, nanoparticle metal oxides (Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent, or N-CAS) for removing arsenic from water, ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP-PAN) for removing cesium-137 (137Cs) from aqueous nuclear waste streams, and The Phosphate Sponge (TPS) composite, which is being used to remove inorganic/ortho-phosphates in water treatment processes to mitigate introduction to the environment, which impedes toxic algae bloom formations. This chapter provides details on production of these materials along with options to optimize the synthesis process. It also includes experimental techniques to characterize products and assess their performance.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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