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Title: Heterodyne Detection of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields Using Point Defects in Silicon Carbide.

Abstract

Sensing electric fields with high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and at radio frequencies can be challenging to realize. Recently, point defects in silicon carbide have shown their ability to measure local electric fields by optical conversion of their charge state. Here, we report the combination of heterodyne detection with charge-based electric field sensing, solving many of the previous limitations of this technique. Owing to the nonlinear response of the charge conversion to electric fields, the application of a separate pump electric field results in a detection sensitivity as low as 1.1(V/cm)/ Hz , with a near-diffraction limited spatial resolution and tunable control of the sensor dynamic range. In addition, we show both incoherent and coherent heterodyne detection, allowing measurements of either unknown random fields or synchronized fields with higher sensitivities. Finally, we demonstrate in-plane vector measurements of the electric field by combining orthogonal pump electric fields. Overall, this work establishes charge-based measurements as highly relevant for solid-state defect sensing.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOD; University of Chicago - Materials Research Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science - Office of Basic Energy Sciences - Materials Sciences and Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1557247
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Wolfowicz, Gary, Anderson, Christopher P., Whiteley, Samuel J., and Awschalom, David D. Heterodyne Detection of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields Using Point Defects in Silicon Carbide.. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5108913.
Wolfowicz, Gary, Anderson, Christopher P., Whiteley, Samuel J., & Awschalom, David D. Heterodyne Detection of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields Using Point Defects in Silicon Carbide.. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5108913.
Wolfowicz, Gary, Anderson, Christopher P., Whiteley, Samuel J., and Awschalom, David D. Mon . "Heterodyne Detection of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields Using Point Defects in Silicon Carbide.". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5108913.
@article{osti_1557247,
title = {Heterodyne Detection of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields Using Point Defects in Silicon Carbide.},
author = {Wolfowicz, Gary and Anderson, Christopher P. and Whiteley, Samuel J. and Awschalom, David D.},
abstractNote = {Sensing electric fields with high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and at radio frequencies can be challenging to realize. Recently, point defects in silicon carbide have shown their ability to measure local electric fields by optical conversion of their charge state. Here, we report the combination of heterodyne detection with charge-based electric field sensing, solving many of the previous limitations of this technique. Owing to the nonlinear response of the charge conversion to electric fields, the application of a separate pump electric field results in a detection sensitivity as low as 1.1(V/cm)/Hz, with a near-diffraction limited spatial resolution and tunable control of the sensor dynamic range. In addition, we show both incoherent and coherent heterodyne detection, allowing measurements of either unknown random fields or synchronized fields with higher sensitivities. Finally, we demonstrate in-plane vector measurements of the electric field by combining orthogonal pump electric fields. Overall, this work establishes charge-based measurements as highly relevant for solid-state defect sensing.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5108913},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 4,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}