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Title: Purification and Improved Nuclear Radiation Detection of Tl 6 SI 4 Semiconductor

Abstract

The wide-band-gap semiconductor Tl 6SI 4 (2.14 eV) has high photon stopping power and is a promising material for detecting X-rays. To improve its photoresponse to low-flux γ-rays, material purification prior to crystal growth is crucial. In this contribution, we report effective purification protocols, impurity analysis, followed by synthesis and crystal growth, charge transport, and detector performance of large-sized Tl 6SI 4 crystals. Purification methods of evaporation and zone refining were developed, and their high effectiveness was confirmed by impurity analysis via glow discharge mass spectrometry. Centimeter-sized single crystals were grown using the Bridgman method. The improved properties after material purification were confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. The energy of the valence band maximum of a Tl 6SI 4, measured with photoemission spectroscopy in air (PESA), is ~5.34 ± 0.05 eV. Detector devices fabricated from the single crystal exhibit a high resistivity of 5 × 10 12 Ω·cm. The detector shows potential photoresponse under 22.4 keV Ag Kα X-rays and 122 keV γ-rays from 57Co. Spectroscopic energy resolution was achieved for 5.5 MeV α-particles from a 241Am radiation source with a full width at half-maximum of 27% at an electric field intensity of 2500 V·cm -1. On the foundation of itsmore » spectral response to 57Co γ-rays, the electron mobility-lifetime product μeτe was estimated as 1.4 × 10 -5 cm 2·V -1. Drift mobility measurements via a time-of-flight technique using spectral photoresponse induced by α-particles reveal a high electron mobility of 35 ± 7 cm 2·V -1·s -1.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation
OSTI Identifier:
1557242
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Crystal Growth and Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1528-7483
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Lin, Wenwen, Liu, Zhifu, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Das, Sanjib, He, Yihui, Hadar, Ido, Peters, John A., McCall, Kyle M., Xu, Yadong, Chung, Duck Young, Wessels, Bruce W., and Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. Purification and Improved Nuclear Radiation Detection of Tl 6 SI 4 Semiconductor. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00620.
Lin, Wenwen, Liu, Zhifu, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Das, Sanjib, He, Yihui, Hadar, Ido, Peters, John A., McCall, Kyle M., Xu, Yadong, Chung, Duck Young, Wessels, Bruce W., & Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. Purification and Improved Nuclear Radiation Detection of Tl 6 SI 4 Semiconductor. United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00620
Lin, Wenwen, Liu, Zhifu, Stoumpos, Constantinos C., Das, Sanjib, He, Yihui, Hadar, Ido, Peters, John A., McCall, Kyle M., Xu, Yadong, Chung, Duck Young, Wessels, Bruce W., and Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. Wed . "Purification and Improved Nuclear Radiation Detection of Tl 6 SI 4 Semiconductor". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00620. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1557242.
@article{osti_1557242,
title = {Purification and Improved Nuclear Radiation Detection of Tl 6 SI 4 Semiconductor},
author = {Lin, Wenwen and Liu, Zhifu and Stoumpos, Constantinos C. and Das, Sanjib and He, Yihui and Hadar, Ido and Peters, John A. and McCall, Kyle M. and Xu, Yadong and Chung, Duck Young and Wessels, Bruce W. and Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.},
abstractNote = {The wide-band-gap semiconductor Tl6SI4 (2.14 eV) has high photon stopping power and is a promising material for detecting X-rays. To improve its photoresponse to low-flux γ-rays, material purification prior to crystal growth is crucial. In this contribution, we report effective purification protocols, impurity analysis, followed by synthesis and crystal growth, charge transport, and detector performance of large-sized Tl6SI4 crystals. Purification methods of evaporation and zone refining were developed, and their high effectiveness was confirmed by impurity analysis via glow discharge mass spectrometry. Centimeter-sized single crystals were grown using the Bridgman method. The improved properties after material purification were confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. The energy of the valence band maximum of a Tl6SI4, measured with photoemission spectroscopy in air (PESA), is ~5.34 ± 0.05 eV. Detector devices fabricated from the single crystal exhibit a high resistivity of 5 × 1012 Ω·cm. The detector shows potential photoresponse under 22.4 keV Ag Kα X-rays and 122 keV γ-rays from 57Co. Spectroscopic energy resolution was achieved for 5.5 MeV α-particles from a 241Am radiation source with a full width at half-maximum of 27% at an electric field intensity of 2500 V·cm-1. On the foundation of its spectral response to 57Co γ-rays, the electron mobility-lifetime product μeτe was estimated as 1.4 × 10-5 cm2·V-1. Drift mobility measurements via a time-of-flight technique using spectral photoresponse induced by α-particles reveal a high electron mobility of 35 ± 7 cm2·V-1·s-1.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.cgd.9b00620},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1557242}, journal = {Crystal Growth and Design},
issn = {1528-7483},
number = 8,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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