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Title: Foaming during Nuclear Waste Melter Feeds Conversion to Glass: Application of Evolved Gas Analysis

Abstract

During the final stages of batch-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter, gases evolving in the cold cap produce primary foam, the formation and collapse of which control the glass production rate via its effect on heat transfer to the reacting batch. We performed quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) for several HLW melter feeds with temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 1150 °C, the whole temperature span in a cold cap. EGA results were supplemented with visual observation of batch-to-glass transition using the feed expansion tests. Upon heating, most of the gases—mainly H2O, CO2, NO, NO2, N2 and O2—evolve at temperatures below 700 °C and escape directly to the atmosphere through open porosity. However, as open porosity closes when enough glass-forming melt appears at 720 °C, the residual gas evolution leads to the formation of primary foam. We found that primary foaming is mostly caused by the decomposition of residual carbonates, though oxygen evolution from iron-redox reaction can also play a role. We also show that the gas evolution shifts to a higher temperature when the heating rate increases. The implications for the mathematical modeling of foam layer in the cold cap are presented.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. VISITORS
  2. Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague
  3. Institute of Chemical Technology
  4. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
  5. OFFICE RIVER PROTECTION
  6. EMERITUS PROGRAM
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1557161
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-133872
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
International Journal of Applied Glass Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Hujova, Miroslava, Pokorny, Richard, Klouzek, Jaroslav, Lee, Seung Min, Traverso, Joseph J., Schweiger, Michael J., Kruger, Albert A., and Hrma, Pavel R. Foaming during Nuclear Waste Melter Feeds Conversion to Glass: Application of Evolved Gas Analysis. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1111/ijag.12353.
Hujova, Miroslava, Pokorny, Richard, Klouzek, Jaroslav, Lee, Seung Min, Traverso, Joseph J., Schweiger, Michael J., Kruger, Albert A., & Hrma, Pavel R. Foaming during Nuclear Waste Melter Feeds Conversion to Glass: Application of Evolved Gas Analysis. United States. doi:10.1111/ijag.12353.
Hujova, Miroslava, Pokorny, Richard, Klouzek, Jaroslav, Lee, Seung Min, Traverso, Joseph J., Schweiger, Michael J., Kruger, Albert A., and Hrma, Pavel R. Mon . "Foaming during Nuclear Waste Melter Feeds Conversion to Glass: Application of Evolved Gas Analysis". United States. doi:10.1111/ijag.12353.
@article{osti_1557161,
title = {Foaming during Nuclear Waste Melter Feeds Conversion to Glass: Application of Evolved Gas Analysis},
author = {Hujova, Miroslava and Pokorny, Richard and Klouzek, Jaroslav and Lee, Seung Min and Traverso, Joseph J. and Schweiger, Michael J. and Kruger, Albert A. and Hrma, Pavel R.},
abstractNote = {During the final stages of batch-to-glass conversion in a waste-glass melter, gases evolving in the cold cap produce primary foam, the formation and collapse of which control the glass production rate via its effect on heat transfer to the reacting batch. We performed quantitative evolved gas analysis (EGA) for several HLW melter feeds with temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 1150 °C, the whole temperature span in a cold cap. EGA results were supplemented with visual observation of batch-to-glass transition using the feed expansion tests. Upon heating, most of the gases—mainly H2O, CO2, NO, NO2, N2 and O2—evolve at temperatures below 700 °C and escape directly to the atmosphere through open porosity. However, as open porosity closes when enough glass-forming melt appears at 720 °C, the residual gas evolution leads to the formation of primary foam. We found that primary foaming is mostly caused by the decomposition of residual carbonates, though oxygen evolution from iron-redox reaction can also play a role. We also show that the gas evolution shifts to a higher temperature when the heating rate increases. The implications for the mathematical modeling of foam layer in the cold cap are presented.},
doi = {10.1111/ijag.12353},
journal = {International Journal of Applied Glass Science},
number = 4,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}