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Title: Rapid simulation of X-ray scatter measurements for threat detection via GPU-based ray-tracing

Abstract

Scatter-based X-ray imaging has increased in prominence in areas ranging from cancer diagnostics to threat detection in aviation security, due largely to the development of new algorithms and components over the last decade. However, system design and algorithm development are often hindered by an inability to generate a sucient amount of accurate data. To further the development of scatter-based systems, we created a rapid X-ray scatter simulation tool built with a GPU-centric, parallel ray-tracing framework (NVIDIA OptiX). This tool models a full range of X-ray imaging components and describes 3D objects formed with heterogeneous media using polygon meshes. The scatter simulation algorithm we used is similar to the previously-described hybrid approach; however, instead of employing Monte Carlo techniques, we developed a purely analytical algorithm to sample the distribution of single-scatter events throughout the region of interest. The contribution of scattered photons to the measured signal is then calculated using the first-Born approximation. The accuracy of the implemented pipeline has been validated by comparing simulated against experimental data obtained with a laboratory X-ray scattering system and phantoms of varied materials. Using a single desktop computer with an NVIDIA GTX 770 GPU, we show that the scatter signal generated by an incidentmore » fan beam and recorded by a 125 125 element detector array can be simulated in on the order of a few to tens of minutes (depending on the object extent and complexity). As a point of comparison, simulations performed via CPU-based Monte Carlo tools, such as GEANT4 (i.e., the gold standard), can take up to tens of hours to achieve comparable results.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Fermilab
  2. IOR SA
  3. Duke U.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1556943
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-19-376-CD
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-583X; 1748760
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 449; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-583X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Gong, Qian, Stoian, Razvan-Ionut, Coccarelli, David, Vera, Esteban, and Gehm, Michael E. Rapid simulation of X-ray scatter measurements for threat detection via GPU-based ray-tracing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2019.03.006.
Gong, Qian, Stoian, Razvan-Ionut, Coccarelli, David, Vera, Esteban, & Gehm, Michael E. Rapid simulation of X-ray scatter measurements for threat detection via GPU-based ray-tracing. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2019.03.006.
Gong, Qian, Stoian, Razvan-Ionut, Coccarelli, David, Vera, Esteban, and Gehm, Michael E. Tue . "Rapid simulation of X-ray scatter measurements for threat detection via GPU-based ray-tracing". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2019.03.006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1556943.
@article{osti_1556943,
title = {Rapid simulation of X-ray scatter measurements for threat detection via GPU-based ray-tracing},
author = {Gong, Qian and Stoian, Razvan-Ionut and Coccarelli, David and Vera, Esteban and Gehm, Michael E.},
abstractNote = {Scatter-based X-ray imaging has increased in prominence in areas ranging from cancer diagnostics to threat detection in aviation security, due largely to the development of new algorithms and components over the last decade. However, system design and algorithm development are often hindered by an inability to generate a sucient amount of accurate data. To further the development of scatter-based systems, we created a rapid X-ray scatter simulation tool built with a GPU-centric, parallel ray-tracing framework (NVIDIA OptiX). This tool models a full range of X-ray imaging components and describes 3D objects formed with heterogeneous media using polygon meshes. The scatter simulation algorithm we used is similar to the previously-described hybrid approach; however, instead of employing Monte Carlo techniques, we developed a purely analytical algorithm to sample the distribution of single-scatter events throughout the region of interest. The contribution of scattered photons to the measured signal is then calculated using the first-Born approximation. The accuracy of the implemented pipeline has been validated by comparing simulated against experimental data obtained with a laboratory X-ray scattering system and phantoms of varied materials. Using a single desktop computer with an NVIDIA GTX 770 GPU, we show that the scatter signal generated by an incident fan beam and recorded by a 125 125 element detector array can be simulated in on the order of a few to tens of minutes (depending on the object extent and complexity). As a point of comparison, simulations performed via CPU-based Monte Carlo tools, such as GEANT4 (i.e., the gold standard), can take up to tens of hours to achieve comparable results.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2019.03.006},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms},
issn = {0168-583X},
number = ,
volume = 449,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}