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Title: Phase-change material heat exchangers for heat mitigation in Type 3 and Type 4 H2 and CNG pressure vessels during fast refueling

Abstract

High surface-area phase change material heat exchangers were investigated as a strategy to eliminate hydrogen refueling station refrigeration units. Proof-of-concept tests using paraffin wax demonstrated that in-tank phase change materials could limit the peak gas temperature during simulated fills, but the low thermal conductivity of paraffin wax resulted in over-sizing the in-tank phase change material. Numerical models validated by the tests demonstrate a path to achieving the program targets. The total cost of ownership (TCO) analyses show cost parity for a paraffin-based phase change material heat exchanger (PCM-HX) compared to the current practice of precooling the fuel at the station. Alternate phase change materials, such as hydrated salts (e.g. sodium acetate and sodium silicate), can significantly reduce the PCM-HX volume and could lead to compelling technology that would eliminate the station refrigeration unit. In Phase 2, prototype designs are proposed that will confirm the performance of paraffin-based PCM-HXs and test the performance of hydrated salt PCM-HXs.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Strategic Analysis
  2. NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Strategic Analylsis, Inc.
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
NASA Johnson Space Center
OSTI Identifier:
1547056
Report Number(s):
DOE-StrategicAnalysis-18763
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0018763
Type / Phase:
SBIR (Phase I)
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; Hydrogen, Compressed Gas Storage, Pressure Vessel, Phase Change Materials, Heat Exchange

Citation Formats

Houchins, Cassidy, James, Brian David, and Hansen, Scott William. Phase-change material heat exchangers for heat mitigation in Type 3 and Type 4 H2 and CNG pressure vessels during fast refueling. United States: N. p., 2019. Web.
Houchins, Cassidy, James, Brian David, & Hansen, Scott William. Phase-change material heat exchangers for heat mitigation in Type 3 and Type 4 H2 and CNG pressure vessels during fast refueling. United States.
Houchins, Cassidy, James, Brian David, and Hansen, Scott William. 2019. "Phase-change material heat exchangers for heat mitigation in Type 3 and Type 4 H2 and CNG pressure vessels during fast refueling". United States.
@article{osti_1547056,
title = {Phase-change material heat exchangers for heat mitigation in Type 3 and Type 4 H2 and CNG pressure vessels during fast refueling},
author = {Houchins, Cassidy and James, Brian David and Hansen, Scott William},
abstractNote = {High surface-area phase change material heat exchangers were investigated as a strategy to eliminate hydrogen refueling station refrigeration units. Proof-of-concept tests using paraffin wax demonstrated that in-tank phase change materials could limit the peak gas temperature during simulated fills, but the low thermal conductivity of paraffin wax resulted in over-sizing the in-tank phase change material. Numerical models validated by the tests demonstrate a path to achieving the program targets. The total cost of ownership (TCO) analyses show cost parity for a paraffin-based phase change material heat exchanger (PCM-HX) compared to the current practice of precooling the fuel at the station. Alternate phase change materials, such as hydrated salts (e.g. sodium acetate and sodium silicate), can significantly reduce the PCM-HX volume and could lead to compelling technology that would eliminate the station refrigeration unit. In Phase 2, prototype designs are proposed that will confirm the performance of paraffin-based PCM-HXs and test the performance of hydrated salt PCM-HXs.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1547056}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Technical Report:
This technical report may be released as soon as August 6, 2023
Other availability
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