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Title: Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation

Abstract

GE Global Research, in partnership with SUNY Polytechnic Institute (SUNY Poly) and GE–Fuel Cells LLC, designed, built, and tested multi-gas sensor prototypes for in situ monitoring of gases produced during steam reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. To be widely adopted and to deliver a lower operating cost for customers, SOFC systems should enhance their operation reliability and improve stack robustness. These needs can be achieved by early diagnostics of potential upsets by using in-situ gas sensors for the real-time monitoring of gas mixture compositions. Thus, this project objective was to achieve selectivity and stability of sensing of gases for SOFC applications by implementing a new generation of gas sensors, known as multivariable sensors. Such sensors are intended to complement the mature traditional analytical instruments based on sensor performance and design characteristics. The key sensor-performance characteristics include accurate detection and quantitation of several gases in their mixtures and stability of operation in unattended applications. The key design characteristics of sensors include their unobtrusive form factor and cost-effectiveness. The duration of the project was 18 months with the project structure that included three technical tasks such as (1) design and laboratory validation of multivariable sensors for selective detection ofmore » H2 and CO gases, (2) laboratory validation of sensor stability over a two-week testing, and (3) field-validation of the developed multivariable sensor system prototype at GE–Fuel Cells factory. Multi-gas detection was achieved with multivariable photonic sensors designed to operate at elevated temperature. The sensor design was based on three-dimensional (3D) bio-inspired photonic nanostructure that was fabricated using materials responsive to gases of interest such as H2 and CO. The gas discrimination and the rejection of interferences such as CH4, H2O, and others was performed by optimizing the design parameters of the 3D photonic nanostructures such as their composition and morphology. Planar sol-gel and sputtered sensing films were fabricated as controls. As a result of the fabrication, functionalization, excitation, and performance testing of 3D photonic sensors, we developed initial design rules for high temperature multivariable sensors. These design rules pave the way for the new generation of cost-effective industrial sensors. Stability of sensor operation was tested in the laboratory conditions under variations of the ambient environments. Stability tests were designed in the order of enhanced complexity and realism of sensor operation and included quantitation of a single gas, quantitation of a single gas in the presence of interferences, and quantitation of two and three gases. We have found that conventional machine learning data analysis stools were unable to correct for the sensor drift. Thus, we have developed new methods of machine learning data analysis that provided us with needed performance stability. Such performance improvement in gas sensing was a significant milestone in bringing our multivariable sensors to practical applications. The project culminated with initial field validation of developed multivariable sensor prototypes at GE–Fuel Cells LLC. The in situ data generated by the sensor system in the lab and field conditions provided inputs that advanced our fundamental understanding of gas sensing at high temperatures to enable sensors for SOFC applications and allowed development of the recommendations for further deliverables.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
GE Global Research
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
GE-Fuel Cells LLC
OSTI Identifier:
1544545
Report Number(s):
DE-FE0027918
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0027918
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors, accuracy, stability, bio-inspired, multivariable sensing, data analytics

Citation Formats

Potyrailo, Radislav. Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Potyrailo, Radislav. Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation. United States.
Potyrailo, Radislav. Mon . "Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation". United States.
@article{osti_1544545,
title = {Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation},
author = {Potyrailo, Radislav},
abstractNote = {GE Global Research, in partnership with SUNY Polytechnic Institute (SUNY Poly) and GE–Fuel Cells LLC, designed, built, and tested multi-gas sensor prototypes for in situ monitoring of gases produced during steam reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. To be widely adopted and to deliver a lower operating cost for customers, SOFC systems should enhance their operation reliability and improve stack robustness. These needs can be achieved by early diagnostics of potential upsets by using in-situ gas sensors for the real-time monitoring of gas mixture compositions. Thus, this project objective was to achieve selectivity and stability of sensing of gases for SOFC applications by implementing a new generation of gas sensors, known as multivariable sensors. Such sensors are intended to complement the mature traditional analytical instruments based on sensor performance and design characteristics. The key sensor-performance characteristics include accurate detection and quantitation of several gases in their mixtures and stability of operation in unattended applications. The key design characteristics of sensors include their unobtrusive form factor and cost-effectiveness. The duration of the project was 18 months with the project structure that included three technical tasks such as (1) design and laboratory validation of multivariable sensors for selective detection of H2 and CO gases, (2) laboratory validation of sensor stability over a two-week testing, and (3) field-validation of the developed multivariable sensor system prototype at GE–Fuel Cells factory. Multi-gas detection was achieved with multivariable photonic sensors designed to operate at elevated temperature. The sensor design was based on three-dimensional (3D) bio-inspired photonic nanostructure that was fabricated using materials responsive to gases of interest such as H2 and CO. The gas discrimination and the rejection of interferences such as CH4, H2O, and others was performed by optimizing the design parameters of the 3D photonic nanostructures such as their composition and morphology. Planar sol-gel and sputtered sensing films were fabricated as controls. As a result of the fabrication, functionalization, excitation, and performance testing of 3D photonic sensors, we developed initial design rules for high temperature multivariable sensors. These design rules pave the way for the new generation of cost-effective industrial sensors. Stability of sensor operation was tested in the laboratory conditions under variations of the ambient environments. Stability tests were designed in the order of enhanced complexity and realism of sensor operation and included quantitation of a single gas, quantitation of a single gas in the presence of interferences, and quantitation of two and three gases. We have found that conventional machine learning data analysis stools were unable to correct for the sensor drift. Thus, we have developed new methods of machine learning data analysis that provided us with needed performance stability. Such performance improvement in gas sensing was a significant milestone in bringing our multivariable sensors to practical applications. The project culminated with initial field validation of developed multivariable sensor prototypes at GE–Fuel Cells LLC. The in situ data generated by the sensor system in the lab and field conditions provided inputs that advanced our fundamental understanding of gas sensing at high temperatures to enable sensors for SOFC applications and allowed development of the recommendations for further deliverables.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Technical Report:
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