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Title: Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

Abstract

In this study, we report constraints on the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) above 109 GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 X 105 GeV to above 1011 GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×106 GeV, the highest neutrino energies observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×105 GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at > 99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the non-observation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and $$γ$$-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1544416
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1334692
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Pino Rosendo, E., Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.241101.
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Pino Rosendo, E., Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Zoll, M. Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.241101
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Pino Rosendo, E., Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. Wed . "Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.241101. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1544416.
@article{osti_1544416,
title = {Constraints on Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources from a Search for Neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Abraham, K. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Archinger, M. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker Tjus, J. and Becker, K. -H. and BenZvi, S. and Berghaus, P. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Bernhard, A. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Bissok, M. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Bos, F. and Bose, D. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Braun, J. and Brayeur, L. and Bretz, H. -P. and Burgman, A. and Carver, T. and Casier, M. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Day, M. and de André, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and del Pino Rosendo, E. and Dembinski, H. and De Ridder, S. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and di Lorenzo, V. and Dujmovic, H. and Dumm, J. P. and Dunkman, M. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Euler, S. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Feintzeig, J. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Fösig, C. -C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fuchs, T. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Gladstone, L. and Glagla, M. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Golup, G. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Haj Ismail, A. and Hallgren, A. and Halzen, F. and Hansen, E. and Hansmann, B. and Hansmann, T. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Holzapfel, K. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and In, S. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jurkovic, M. and Kappes, A. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kemp, J. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, M. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Kohnen, G. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Konietz, R. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Krückl, G. and Krüger, C. and Kunnen, J. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kuwabara, T. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lennarz, D. and Lesiak-Bzdak, M. and Leuermann, M. and Leuner, J. and Lu, L. and Lünemann, J. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Mancina, S. and Mandelartz, M. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Meier, M. and Meli, A. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Mohrmann, L. and Montaruli, T. and Moulai, M. and Nahnhauer, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Obertacke Pollmann, A. and Olivas, A. and O’Murchadha, A. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Penek, Ö. and Pepper, J. A. and Pérez de los Heros, C. and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. 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abstractNote = {In this study, we report constraints on the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) above 109 GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5 X 105 GeV to above 1011 GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×106 GeV, the highest neutrino energies observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×105 GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin is also rejected at > 99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the non-observation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having cosmological evolution stronger than the star formation rate, e.g., active galactic nuclei and $γ$-ray bursts, assuming proton-dominated UHECRs. Constraints on UHECR sources including mixed and heavy UHECR compositions are obtained for models of neutrino production within UHECR sources. Our limit disfavors a significant part of parameter space for active galactic nuclei and new-born pulsar models.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.241101},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1544416}, journal = {Physical Review Letters},
issn = {0031-9007},
number = 24,
volume = 117,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Solid angle and time integrated exposure from April 2008 through May 2015 as a function of neutrino energy by flavor and flavor sum, including neutrino absorption effects in the Earth. The sharp peaked structure at 6.3×10 6 GeV for electron neutrinos is due to the Glashow resonance. Themore » Auger exposure is included for reference.« less

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