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Title: Large metastability in Cu (In,Ga)Se 2 devices: The importance of buffer properties

Abstract

Some commercial Cu (In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) modules reveal large changes in current-voltage parameters with light soaking. While such changes are not necessarily indicative of a performance problem, the associated uncertainty may be disadvantageous in a highly competitive market. Thus, it is beneficial to understand the origin of large metastabilities in order to define what processing changes might diminish metastability without impacting other desirable aspects of high-performance devices. This report attempts to reproduce large metastabilities like those in some commercial products both through absorber and buffer processing variations in small devices. While variations of both types were found to affect metastability, only buffer variations could reproduce large metastability in high-efficiency devices. Device modeling validates that buffer effects alone are sufficient to explain the large metastability seen in these devices.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Renewable Power Office. Solar Energy Technologies Office
OSTI Identifier:
1543253
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1529678
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-72573
Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC36‐08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; buffer; CdS; CIGS; light soak; metastable

Citation Formats

Repins, Ingrid, Glynn, Stephen, Silverman, Timothy J., Garris, Rebekah, Bowers, Karen, Stevens, Bart, and Mansfield, Lorelle. Large metastability in Cu (In,Ga)Se2 devices: The importance of buffer properties. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/pip.3145.
Repins, Ingrid, Glynn, Stephen, Silverman, Timothy J., Garris, Rebekah, Bowers, Karen, Stevens, Bart, & Mansfield, Lorelle. Large metastability in Cu (In,Ga)Se2 devices: The importance of buffer properties. United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3145.
Repins, Ingrid, Glynn, Stephen, Silverman, Timothy J., Garris, Rebekah, Bowers, Karen, Stevens, Bart, and Mansfield, Lorelle. Wed . "Large metastability in Cu (In,Ga)Se2 devices: The importance of buffer properties". United States. doi:10.1002/pip.3145. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1543253.
@article{osti_1543253,
title = {Large metastability in Cu (In,Ga)Se2 devices: The importance of buffer properties},
author = {Repins, Ingrid and Glynn, Stephen and Silverman, Timothy J. and Garris, Rebekah and Bowers, Karen and Stevens, Bart and Mansfield, Lorelle},
abstractNote = {Some commercial Cu (In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) modules reveal large changes in current-voltage parameters with light soaking. While such changes are not necessarily indicative of a performance problem, the associated uncertainty may be disadvantageous in a highly competitive market. Thus, it is beneficial to understand the origin of large metastabilities in order to define what processing changes might diminish metastability without impacting other desirable aspects of high-performance devices. This report attempts to reproduce large metastabilities like those in some commercial products both through absorber and buffer processing variations in small devices. While variations of both types were found to affect metastability, only buffer variations could reproduce large metastability in high-efficiency devices. Device modeling validates that buffer effects alone are sufficient to explain the large metastability seen in these devices.},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3145},
journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
issn = {1062-7995},
number = 9,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 2 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    New reaction kinetics for a high-rate chemical bath deposition of the Zn(S,O) buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells: New reaction kinetics for a high-rate CBD Zn(S,O) buffer
    journal, January 2012

    • Hariskos, Dimitrios; Menner, Richard; Jackson, Philip
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 20, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.1244

    Minimizing metastabilities in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 /(CBD)Zn(S,O,OH)/i-ZnO-based solar cells : Minimizing metastabilities in thin film solar cells
    journal, January 2014

    • Buffière, Marie; Barreau, Nicolas; Arzel, Ludovic
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 23, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2451

    Impact of oxygen concentration during the deposition of window layers on lowering the metastability effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 /CBD Zn(S,O) based solar cell : Impact of oxygen in window layers on Cu(In,Ga)Se
    journal, June 2015

    • Naghavi, Negar; Temgoua, Solange; Hildebrandt, Thibaud
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 23, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2626

    Ammonia-free, room temperature, and reusable photochemical bath for the deposition of Zn(S,O) buffer layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin-film solar cells
    journal, January 2018

    • Gallanti, Serena; Chassaing, Elisabeth; Loones, Nicolas
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 26, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2987

    19·9%-efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe 2 solar cell with 81·2% fill factor
    journal, May 2008

    • Repins, Ingrid; Contreras, Miguel A.; Egaas, Brian
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 16, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.822

    Temperature-dependent current-voltage and lightsoaking measurements on Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells with ALD-Zn 1-x Mg x O buffer layers
    journal, November 2009

    • Pettersson, J.; Platzer-Björkman, C.; Edoff, M.
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 17, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.912

    Role of Zinc Source in Chemical Bath Deposition of Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Si3N4
    journal, August 2014

    • Luque, P. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Claudia M.; Lastra, G.
    • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 43, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-014-3334-8

    Chemical bath deposited ZnS buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin film solar cell
    journal, February 2018


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    journal, March 2010

    • Hori, Hiroaki; Minemoto, Takashi; Takakura, Hideyuki
    • Current Applied Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.cap.2009.11.023

    Effect of CdS deposition temperature for thermally grown Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and two-step chalcogenized Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers on solar cell performances
    journal, January 2017


    Understanding defect-related issues limiting efficiency of CIGS solar cells
    journal, August 2009

    • Igalson, Małgorzata; Zabierowski, Paweł; Prządo, Daniel
    • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 93, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2009.01.022

    In Situ thickness measurements of chemical bath-deposited CdS
    journal, February 2010


    Light-induced changes in the minority carrier diffusion length of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber material
    journal, April 2017


    Efficiency limitations for wide-band-gap chalcopyrite solar cells
    journal, June 2005


    CIGS J–V distortion in the absence of blue photons
    journal, June 2005


    Metastabilities in the electrical characteristics of CIGS devices: Experimental results vs theoretical predictions
    journal, May 2007


    Capacitance profiling in the CIGS solar cells
    journal, May 2007

    • Ćwil, Michał; Igalson, Małgorzata; Zabierowski, Paweł
    • Thin Solid Films, Vol. 515, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.12.102

    Relaxation of light induced metastabilities in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 with different Ga content
    journal, February 2009


    Highly efficient CIS solar cells and modules made by the co-evaporation process
    journal, February 2009


    The influence of Na on metastable defect kinetics in CIGS materials
    journal, February 2009


    Recombination kinetics and stability in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
    journal, February 2009


    Investigation of the metastability behavior of CIGS based solar cells with ZnMgO–Zn(S,O,OH) window-buffer layers
    journal, August 2011


    Electrical metastabilities in chalcogenide photovoltaic devices
    journal, May 2013


    Modelling and measurement of the metastable defect distribution in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells
    journal, May 2013


    Light soaking induced doping increase and sodium redistribution in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 -based thin film solar cells
    journal, May 2015


    Selective excitation of window and buffer layers in chalcopyrite devices and modules
    journal, June 2018


    Surface treatment of CuInGaSe2 thin films and its effect on the photovoltaic properties of solar cells
    journal, September 2003


    Classification of metastabilities in the electrical characteristics of ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
    journal, May 2001


    Optimization of CBD CdS process in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells
    journal, February 2002


    Modelling polycrystalline semiconductor solar cells
    journal, February 2000


    Theoretical analysis of the effect of conduction band offset of window/CIS layers on performance of CIS solar cells using device simulation
    journal, March 2001

    • Minemoto, Takashi; Matsui, Takuya; Takakura, Hideyuki
    • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 67, Issue 1-4
    • DOI: 10.1016/s0927-0248(00)00266-x

    Examination of blocking current-voltage behaviour through defect chalcopyrite layer in ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cell
    journal, December 1997


    Features of KF and NaF Postdeposition Treatments of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Absorbers for High Efficiency Thin Film Solar Cells
    journal, August 2015


    Room-Temperature Chemical Solution Treatment for Flexible ZnS(O,OH)/Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Solar Cell: Improvements in Interface Properties and Metastability
    journal, March 2016

    • Ho, Wei-Hao; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan
    • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 8, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b11028

    Relating Deposition Conditions to Zn(S,O,OH) Thin Film Properties for Photovoltaic Buffer Layers Using a Continuous Flow Microreactor
    journal, November 2014

    • Opasanont, Borirak; Kuba, Austin G.; Louderback, Evan G.
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm501642a

    Stability Issues of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 -Based Solar Cells
    journal, May 2000

    • Guillemoles, Jean-François; Kronik, Leeor; Cahen, David
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 104, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp993143k

    Optically induced metastability in Cu(In,Ga)Se2
    journal, October 2017


    Bulk and metastable defects in CuIn1−xGaxSe2 thin films using drive-level capacitance profiling
    journal, February 2004

    • Heath, Jennifer T.; Cohen, J. David; Shafarman, William N.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 95, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1633982

    Secondary barriers in CdS–CuIn1−xGaxSe2 solar cells
    journal, March 2005

    • Pudov, A. O.; Kanevce, A.; Al-Thani, H. A.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1850604

    Light- and bias-induced metastabilities in Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] based solar cells caused by the (V[sub Se]-V[sub Cu]) vacancy complex
    journal, January 2006

    • Lany, Stephan; Zunger, Alex
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2388256

    Metastable behavior of donors in CuGaSe2 under illumination
    journal, February 2008

    • Siebentritt, Susanne; Rissom, Thorsten
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2857473

    Charge and doping distributions by capacitance profiling in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
    journal, March 2008

    • Cwil, Michal; Igalson, Małgorzata; Zabierowski, Paweł
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2884708

    Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films
    journal, August 2009

    • Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Islam, Muhammad Monirul
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3190528

    Creation and relaxation of light- and bias-induced metastabilities in Cu(In,Ga)Se2
    journal, September 2009

    • Urbaniak, A.; Igalson, M.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3213339

    Electron transport in ZnS
    journal, August 1990

    • Ruda, H. E.; Lai, B.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 68, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.346599

    Metastable properties of Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 with and without sodium
    journal, February 2011

    • Erslev, Peter T.; Shafarman, William N.; Cohen, J. David
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3553783

    Characterization of metastabilities in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin-film solar cells by capacitance and current-voltage spectroscopy
    journal, November 2011

    • Eisenbarth, Tobias; Caballero, Raquel; Nichterwitz, Melanie
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3656453

    Modeling metastabilities in chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells
    journal, February 2012

    • Decock, Koen; Zabierowski, Paweł; Burgelman, Marc
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3686651

    Effects of Na on the electrical and structural properties of CuInSe2
    journal, May 1999

    • Wei, Su-Huai; Zhang, S. B.; Zunger, Alex
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.370534

    Generation-dependent charge carrier transport in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 /CdS/ZnO thin-film solar-cells
    journal, January 2013

    • Nichterwitz, Melanie; Caballero, Raquel; Kaufmann, Christian A.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4788827

    Fiber-fed time-resolved photoluminescence for reduced process feedback time on thin-film photovoltaics
    journal, January 2015

    • Repins, I. L.; Egaas, B.; Mansfield, L. M.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 86, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4905535

    Open-circuit and doping transients of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells with varying Ga content
    journal, February 2015

    • Obereigner, F.; Barreau, N.; Witte, W.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4907391

    Towards high performance Cd-free CZTSe solar cells with a ZnS(O,OH) buffer layer: the influence of thiourea concentration on chemical bath deposition
    journal, February 2016


    Intrinsic D X Centers in Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors
    journal, January 2008


    Impact of the Band Offset for n-Zn(O,S)/p-Cu(In,Ga)Se$_{2}$ Solar Cells
    journal, March 2014


    Persistent Photoconductivity in Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se<sub>2</sub> Thin Films: Experiment Versus Theoretical Predictions
    journal, July 2015


    Toward a Better Understanding of the Use of Additives in Zn(S,O) Deposition Bath for High-Efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 -Based Solar Cells
    journal, November 2015


    Low-Cd CIGS Solar Cells Made With a Hybrid CdS/Zn(O,S) Buffer Layer
    journal, January 2017


    A Novel Fast Process for Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers, Doped With Al and B and Deposited on CIGSSe Solar Cells
    journal, May 2017


    Mechanisms for light-soaking induced carrier concentration changes in the absorber layer of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells
    conference, June 2016

    • Farshchi, Rouin; Hickey, Benjamin; Zapalac, Geordie
    • 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
    • DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2016.7750015

    Effects of ammonia concentration on the formation of CdS fabricated via microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition
    journal, June 2017

    • Liu, Heng-Yu; Som, Sudipta; Sung, Jen-Cheng
    • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 100, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1111/jace.15026

    Stabilization of PN Heterojunction between Cu(InGa)Se 2 Thin-Film Absorber and ZnO Window with Zn(O, S, OH) x Buffer
    journal, May 2000

    • Kushiya, Katsumi; Yamase, Osamu
    • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, Issue Part 1, No. 5A
    • DOI: 10.1143/jjap.39.2577

    Influence of Thiourea Dimers in the Chemical Bath Deposition Process of Metal Sulfides
    journal, January 2010

    • Wilchelmi, Krzysztof; Förster, Diana; Neisser, Axel
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.3458872

    Effect of [Zn
    conference, January 2011

    • Zhong, Zhao-Yang; Li, Zhao-Hui; Cho, Eou-Sik
    • 220th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.3628626

    The Influence of Metastabilities on the Luminescence in the Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Solar Cells
    journal, August 2007


    Kinetic Studies of CdS Formation for a Better Understanding of Chemical Buffer Layer Deposition
    journal, January 2009