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Title: Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors

Abstract

Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) possesses excellent material properties for a wide range of applications where room temperature operability, durability, and high efficiency are required. However, because CZT is a challenging material to produce in useful quantities, the growth and fabrication costs have remained high, creating an economic challenge for vendors. While the traveling heater method (THM) is the predominant means of commercial CZT crystal growth, the Vertical Bridgman method (VB) is an attractive alternative due to its relatively fast growth rate. However, VB grown CZT has yet to compete with THM grown CZT, particularly in terms of charge collection efficiencies, where the charge collection efficiency is characterized by the single carrier electron mobility lifetime (μτ e) product. Despite efforts to overcome this discrepancy, the μτe product in VB grown CZT has remained an order of magnitude lower than THM. Eliminating this difference would bring VB one step closer to outpacing THM in terms of economic feasibility. This paper discusses the development of a unique technique that combines the advantages of both growth methods to better understand this discrepancy and the underlying mechanisms behind it. CZT ingots were grown from melt via VB with highly off-stoichiometric concentrations of tellurium (Te). Meltmore » mixing via accelerated crucible rotation (ACRT) was applied to compensate for any negative effects associated with off-stoichiometry, i.e. flux inclusions. CZT material has been produced at growth rates commensurate with VB (1 ingot/week) and with charge collection efficiencies commensurate with THM (mid 10 -2 cm 2/V) in long bars typical of commercial applications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1543145
Report Number(s):
BNL-211830-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electronic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5235
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

McCoy, Jedidiah J., Kakkireni, Saketh, Gilvey, Zachary H., Swain, Santosh K., Bolotnikov, Aleksey E., and Lynn, Kelvin G. Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s11664-019-07196-5.
McCoy, Jedidiah J., Kakkireni, Saketh, Gilvey, Zachary H., Swain, Santosh K., Bolotnikov, Aleksey E., & Lynn, Kelvin G. Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-019-07196-5
McCoy, Jedidiah J., Kakkireni, Saketh, Gilvey, Zachary H., Swain, Santosh K., Bolotnikov, Aleksey E., and Lynn, Kelvin G. Wed . "Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-019-07196-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1543145.
@article{osti_1543145,
title = {Overcoming Mobility Lifetime Product Limitations in Vertical Bridgman Production of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors},
author = {McCoy, Jedidiah J. and Kakkireni, Saketh and Gilvey, Zachary H. and Swain, Santosh K. and Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. and Lynn, Kelvin G.},
abstractNote = {Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) possesses excellent material properties for a wide range of applications where room temperature operability, durability, and high efficiency are required. However, because CZT is a challenging material to produce in useful quantities, the growth and fabrication costs have remained high, creating an economic challenge for vendors. While the traveling heater method (THM) is the predominant means of commercial CZT crystal growth, the Vertical Bridgman method (VB) is an attractive alternative due to its relatively fast growth rate. However, VB grown CZT has yet to compete with THM grown CZT, particularly in terms of charge collection efficiencies, where the charge collection efficiency is characterized by the single carrier electron mobility lifetime (μτe) product. Despite efforts to overcome this discrepancy, the μτe product in VB grown CZT has remained an order of magnitude lower than THM. Eliminating this difference would bring VB one step closer to outpacing THM in terms of economic feasibility. This paper discusses the development of a unique technique that combines the advantages of both growth methods to better understand this discrepancy and the underlying mechanisms behind it. CZT ingots were grown from melt via VB with highly off-stoichiometric concentrations of tellurium (Te). Melt mixing via accelerated crucible rotation (ACRT) was applied to compensate for any negative effects associated with off-stoichiometry, i.e. flux inclusions. CZT material has been produced at growth rates commensurate with VB (1 ingot/week) and with charge collection efficiencies commensurate with THM (mid 10-2 cm2/V) in long bars typical of commercial applications.},
doi = {10.1007/s11664-019-07196-5},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1543145}, journal = {Journal of Electronic Materials},
issn = {0361-5235},
number = 7,
volume = 48,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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