skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice

Abstract

Magnetic monopoles, proposed as elementary particles that act as isolated magnetic south and north poles, have long attracted research interest as magnetic analogs to electric charge. In solid-state physics, a classical analog to these elusive particles has emerged as topological excitations within pyrochlore spin ice systems. We present the first real-time imaging of emergent magnetic monopole motion in a macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice system consisting of thermally activated Ising-type nanomagnets lithographically arranged onto a pre-etched silicon substrate. A real-space characterization of emergent magnetic monopoles within the framework of Debye-Hückel theory is performed, providing visual evidence that these topological defects act like a plasma of Coulomb-type magnetic charges. In contrast to vertex defects in a purely two-dimensional artificial square ice, magnetic monopoles are free to evolve within a divergence-free vacuum, a magnetic Coulomb phase, for which features in the form of pinch-point singularities in magnetic structure factors are observed.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [5];  [11]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
  2. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  3. Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland); Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
  8. Harbin Inst. of Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)
  9. Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland); Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)
  10. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)
  11. Aalto Univ. School of Science, Aalto (Finland)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1542371
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Farhan, Alan, Saccone, Michael, Petersen, Charlotte F., Dhuey, Scott, Chopdekar, Rajesh V., Huang, Yen-Lin, Kent, Noah, Chen, Zuhuang, Alava, Mikko J., Lippert, Thomas, Scholl, Andreas, and van Dijken, Sebastiaan. Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav6380.
Farhan, Alan, Saccone, Michael, Petersen, Charlotte F., Dhuey, Scott, Chopdekar, Rajesh V., Huang, Yen-Lin, Kent, Noah, Chen, Zuhuang, Alava, Mikko J., Lippert, Thomas, Scholl, Andreas, & van Dijken, Sebastiaan. Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav6380.
Farhan, Alan, Saccone, Michael, Petersen, Charlotte F., Dhuey, Scott, Chopdekar, Rajesh V., Huang, Yen-Lin, Kent, Noah, Chen, Zuhuang, Alava, Mikko J., Lippert, Thomas, Scholl, Andreas, and van Dijken, Sebastiaan. Fri . "Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav6380. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542371.
@article{osti_1542371,
title = {Emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice},
author = {Farhan, Alan and Saccone, Michael and Petersen, Charlotte F. and Dhuey, Scott and Chopdekar, Rajesh V. and Huang, Yen-Lin and Kent, Noah and Chen, Zuhuang and Alava, Mikko J. and Lippert, Thomas and Scholl, Andreas and van Dijken, Sebastiaan},
abstractNote = {Magnetic monopoles, proposed as elementary particles that act as isolated magnetic south and north poles, have long attracted research interest as magnetic analogs to electric charge. In solid-state physics, a classical analog to these elusive particles has emerged as topological excitations within pyrochlore spin ice systems. We present the first real-time imaging of emergent magnetic monopole motion in a macroscopically degenerate artificial spin ice system consisting of thermally activated Ising-type nanomagnets lithographically arranged onto a pre-etched silicon substrate. A real-space characterization of emergent magnetic monopoles within the framework of Debye-Hückel theory is performed, providing visual evidence that these topological defects act like a plasma of Coulomb-type magnetic charges. In contrast to vertex defects in a purely two-dimensional artificial square ice, magnetic monopoles are free to evolve within a divergence-free vacuum, a magnetic Coulomb phase, for which features in the form of pinch-point singularities in magnetic structure factors are observed.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aav6380},
journal = {Science Advances},
issn = {2375-2548},
number = 2,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 15 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Spin Ice State in Frustrated Magnetic Pyrochlore Materials
journal, November 2001


Geometrical Frustration in the Ferromagnetic Pyrochlore Ho 2 Ti 2 O 7
journal, September 1997


Zero-point entropy in ‘spin ice’
journal, May 1999

  • Ramirez, A. P.; Hayashi, A.; Cava, R. J.
  • Nature, Vol. 399, Issue 6734
  • DOI: 10.1038/20619

The Structure and Entropy of Ice and of Other Crystals with Some Randomness of Atomic Arrangement
journal, December 1935

  • Pauling, Linus
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 57, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja01315a102

Magnetic monopoles in spin ice
journal, January 2008

  • Castelnovo, C.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 451, Issue 7174
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06433

Magnetic Coulomb Phase in the Spin Ice Ho2Ti2O7
journal, September 2009


The “Coulomb Phase” in Frustrated Systems
journal, August 2010


Artificial ‘spin ice’ in a geometrically frustrated lattice of nanoscale ferromagnetic islands
journal, January 2006

  • Wang, R. F.; Nisoli, C.; Freitas, R. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 439, Issue 7074
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04447

Direct Observation of Thermal Relaxation in Artificial Spin Ice
journal, August 2013


Artificial Square Ice and Related Dipolar Nanoarrays
journal, June 2006


Exploring thermally induced states in square artificial spin-ice arrays
journal, May 2013


Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice
journal, August 2013

  • Zhang, Sheng; Gilbert, Ian; Nisoli, Cristiano
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12399

Extensive degeneracy, Coulomb phase and magnetic monopoles in artificial square ice
journal, November 2016

  • Perrin, Yann; Canals, Benjamin; Rougemaille, Nicolas
  • Nature, Vol. 540, Issue 7633
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature20155

Building blocks of an artificial kagome spin ice: Photoemission electron microscopy of arrays of ferromagnetic islands
journal, October 2008


Direct observation of the ice rule in an artificial kagome spin ice
journal, March 2008


Direct observation of magnetic monopole defects in an artificial spin-ice system
journal, April 2010

  • Ladak, S.; Read, D. E.; Perkins, G. K.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1628

Thermodynamic phase transitions in a frustrated magnetic metamaterial
journal, September 2015

  • Anghinolfi, L.; Luetkens, H.; Perron, J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9278

Debye-Hückel theory for spin ice at low temperature
journal, October 2011


Magnetic charge and moment dynamics in artificial kagome spin ice
journal, August 2017


Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice
journal, September 2016

  • Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12635

Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices
journal, February 2018


Nanoscale control of competing interactions and geometrical frustration in a dipolar trident lattice
journal, October 2017


Cryogenic PEEM at the Advanced Light Source
journal, October 2012

  • Doran, Andrew; Church, Matthew; Miller, Tom
  • Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 185, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2012.05.005

Element-Specific Magnetic Microscopy with Circularly Polarized X-rays
journal, January 1993


Creation and measurement of long-lived magnetic monopole currents in spin ice
journal, February 2011

  • Giblin, S. R.; Bramwell, S. T.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1896

Dirac Strings and Magnetic Monopoles in the Spin Ice Dy2Ti2O7
journal, September 2009


Dynamics of Bound Monopoles in Artificial Spin Ice: How to Store Energy in Dirac Strings
journal, February 2016


Lattice models of ionic systems
journal, May 2002

  • Kobelev, Vladimir; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1464827

Electrostatic correlations: from plasma to biology
journal, September 2002


Signature of magnetic monopole and Dirac string dynamics in spin ice
journal, March 2009

  • Jaubert, L. D. C.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1227

Exploring hyper-cubic energy landscapes in thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems
journal, May 2013

  • Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Kleibert, A.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2613

Effect of FePd alloy composition on the dynamics of artificial spin ice
journal, March 2018


Magnetic-charge ordering and phase transitions in monopole-conserved square spin ice
journal, October 2015

  • Xie, Y. -L.; Du, Z. -Z.; Yan, Z. -B.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep15875

Onsager’s Wien effect on a lattice
journal, August 2013

  • Kaiser, V.; Bramwell, S. T.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3729

Absence of Pauling’s residual entropy in thermally equilibrated Dy2Ti2O7
journal, April 2013

  • Pomaranski, D.; Yaraskavitch, L. R.; Meng, S.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2591

Magnetic multipole analysis of kagome and artificial spin-ice dipolar arrays
journal, October 2009


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice
    journal, November 2019


    Quasidegenerate ice manifold in a purely two-dimensional square array of nanomagnets
    journal, June 2019


    Thermally and field-driven mobility of emergent magnetic charges in square artificial spin ice
    journal, November 2019


    Quasidegenerate ice manifold in a purely two-dimensional square array of nanomagnets
    journal, June 2019